11 research outputs found

    Education for innovation: engineering, management and design multidisciplinary teams of students tackling complex societal problems through Design Thinking

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    [EN] Innovation education involves a different approach both for professors and students. It requires understanding people, technology and business to develop truly innovative solutions that can succeed in the market. The aim of this paper is to analyze the benefits, learning outcomes and self-learning perception about innovation from students participating in an innovative learning experience co-developed by an Electrical Engineering School, a Business School and a Design Institute. Challenge Based Innovation (CBI) is a program created by CERN to host educational projects where multidisciplinary teams of students tackle innovation challenges. The objective is to design solutions to social problems through Design Thinking. It was observed that engineering students, after this learning experience increase their understanding of user’s needs and the relevance of focusing on them when approaching innovation challenges. Also, they improve their ability to ideate break-through solutions thanks to a better understanding of the relationship between people, business and technology due to their in-depth interaction with management and design students. Furthermore, their self-confidence is significantly increased along with their entrepreneurial skills. The level of engineering student’s understating of innovation as a whole is higher with this approach compared to standard design-build projects performed at the Engineering Schools.Keywords: Design Thinking, Innovation, Challenge Based Education, Multidisciplinary projectshttp://ocs.editorial.upv.es/index.php/HEAD/HEAD18Charosky, G.; Hassi, L.; Leveratto, L.; Papageorgiou, K.; Ramos, J.; Bragos, R. (2018). Education for innovation: engineering, management and design multidisciplinary teams of students tackling complex societal problems through Design Thinking. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. 1081-1087. https://doi.org/10.4995/HEAD18.2018.81501081108

    Minimally Invasive Lung Tissue Differentiation Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy : A Comparison of the 3- and 4-Electrode Methods

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    Altres ajuts: Secretariat d'Universitats i Recerca, Generalitat de Catalunya; the European Social Fund.Multiple imaging techniques are used for the diagnosis of lung diseases. The choice of a technique depends on the suspected diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax and positron emission tomography (PET) are imaging techniques used for the detection, characterization, staging and follow-up of lung cancer, and these techniques use ionizing radiation and are radiologist-dependent. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) performed through a bronchoscopic process could serve as a minimally invasive non-ionizing method complementary to CT and PET to characterize lung tissue. The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and ability of minimally invasive EIS bioimpedance measures to differentiate among healthy lung, bronchial and neoplastic lung tissues through bronchoscopy using the 3- and 4-electrode methods. Tissue differentiation was performed in 13 patients using the 4-electrode method (13 healthy lung, 12 bronchial and 3 neoplastic lung tissues) and the 3-electrode method (9 healthy lung, 10 bronchial and 2 neoplastic lung tissues). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between bronchial and healthy lung tissues for both the 3- and 4-electrode methods. The 3-electrode method seemed to differentiate cancer types through changes in the cellular structures of the tissues by both the reactance (Xc) and the resistance (R). Minimally invasive measurements obtained using the 3-electrode method seem to be most suitable for differentiating between healthy and bronchial lung tissues. In the future, EIS using the 3-electrode method could be a method complementary to PET/CT and biopsy in lung pathology diagnosis

    Performance of the load-in-the-loop single Op-Amp voltage Controlled current source from the Op-Amp Parameters

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    In recent years, Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) methods have gained importance. These methods are often based on obtaining impedance spectrum in the range of ő≤-dispersion, i.e. from a few kHz up to some MHz. To measure EBI a constant current is often injected and the voltage across the tissue under study is recorded. Due to the performance of the current source influences the performance of the entire system, in terms of frequency range, several designs have been implemented and studied. In this paper the basic structure of a Voltage-Controlled Current Source based on a single Op-Amp in inverter configuration with a floating load, known as load-in-the-loop current source, is revisited and studied deeply. We focus on the dependence of the output impedance with the circuit parameters, i.e. the feedback resistor and the inverter-input resistor, and the Op-Amp main parameters, i.e. open loop gain, CMRR and input impedance. After obtaining the experimental results, using modern Op-Amps, and comparing to the theoretical and simulated ones, they confirm the design under study can be a good solution for multi-frequency wideband EBI applications because of higher values of the output impedance than 100kő© at 1MHz are obtained. Furthermore, an enhancement of the basic design, using a current conveyor as a first stage, is proposed, studied and implemented

    Simple voltage-controlled current source for wideband electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy: circuit dependences and limitations

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    In this work, the single Op-Amp with load-in-the-loop topology as a current source is revisited. This circuit topology was already used as a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) in the 1960s but was left unused when the requirements for higher frequency arose among the applications of electrical bioimpedance (EBI). The aim of the authors is not only limited to show that with the currently available electronic devices it is perfectly viable to use this simple VCCS topology as a working current source for wideband spectroscopy applications of EBI, but also to identify the limitations and the role of each of the circuit components in the most important parameter of a current for wideband applications: the output impedance. The study includes the eventual presence of a stray capacitance and also an original enhancement, driving with current the VCCS. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements, an accurate model of the output impedance is provided, explaining the role of the main constitutive elements of the circuit in the source\u27s output impedance. Using the topologies presented in this work and the proposed model, any electronic designer can easily implement a simple and efficient current source for wideband EBI spectroscopy applications, e. g. in this study, values above 150 k Omega at 1 MHz have been obtained, which to the knowledge of the authors are the largest values experimentally measured and reported for a current source in EBI at this frequency

    Effect of Calibration for Tissue Differentiation Between Healthy and Neoplasm Lung Using Minimally Invasive Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

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    This study proposes a calibration method and analyses the effect of this calibration in lung measures, using minimally invasive electrical impedance spectroscopy with the 3-electrode method, for tissue differentiation between healthy and neoplasm lung tissue. Tissue measurements were performed in 99 patients [54 healthy tissue and 15 neoplastic tissue samples obtained] with an indicated bronchoscopy. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) were found between healthy lung tissue and neoplasm lung tissue in bioimpedance parameters. The calibration of the bioimpedance measures with respect to a measure performed in bronchi reduces the inter-patient dispersion, increasing the sensitivity, decreasing the specificity and increasing the area below the ROC curve for three out of four impedance-derived estimators. Results also show that there are no significant differences between healthy lung tissue among smoker, non-smoker and ex-smoker samples, which was initially stated as a possible cause of EIS measurement dispersion in lungs

    Online monitoring of myocardial bioprosthesis for cardiac repair

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    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a myocardial bioprosthesis for cardiac repair with an integrated online monitoring system. Myocardial infarction (MI) causes irreversible myocyte loss and scar formation. Tissue engineering to reduce myocardial scar size has been tested with variable success, yet scar formation and modulation by an engineered graft is incompletely characterized. METHODS: Decellularized human pericardium was embedded using self-assembling peptide RAD16-I with or without GFP-labeled mediastinal adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (MATPCs). Resulting bioprostheses were implanted over the ischemic myocardium in the swine model of MI (n=8 treated and n=5 control animals). For in vivo electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring, two electrodes were anchored to construct edges, covered by NanoGold particles and connected to an impedance-based implantable device. Histological evaluation was performed to identify and characterize GFP cells on post mortem myocardial sections. RESULTS: Pluripotency, cardiomyogenic and endothelial potential and migratory capacity of porcine-derived MATPCs were demonstrated in vitro. Decellularization protocol efficiency, biodegradability, as well as in vitro biocompatibility after recellularization were also verified. One month after myocardial bioprosthesis implantation, morphometry revealed a 36% reduction in infarct area, Ki67(+)-GFP(+)-MATPCs were found at infarct core and border zones, and bioprosthesis vascularization was confirmed by presence of Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I (GSLI) B4 isolectin(+)-GFP(+)-MATPCs. Electrical impedance measurement at low and high frequencies (10 kHz-100 kHz) allowed online monitoring of scar maturation. CONCLUSIONS: With clinical translation as ultimate goal, this myocardial bioprosthesis holds promise to be a viable candidate for human cardiac repair
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