69 research outputs found

    Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Radio-Selected Galaxy Overdensity at z=1.11

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    We report the discovery of a galaxy overdensity at z=1.11 associated with the z=1.110 high-redshift radio galaxy MG0442+0202. The group, CL0442+0202, was found in a near-infrared survey of z>1 radio galaxies undertaken to identify spatially-coincident regions with a high density of objects red in I-K' color, typical of z>1 elliptical galaxies. Spectroscopic observations from the Keck telescope reveal five galaxies within 35" of MG0442+0202 at 1.10<z<1.11. These member galaxies have broad-band colors and optical spectra consistent with passively-evolving elliptical galaxies formed at high redshift. A 45ks Chandra X-Ray Observatory observation detects the radio galaxy and four point sources within 15" of the radio galaxy, corresponding to a surface density two orders of magnitude higher than average for X-ray sources at these flux levels, S(0.5-2keV) > 5e-16 erg/cm2/s. One of these point sources is identified with a radio-quiet, typeII quasar at z=1.863, akin to sources recently reported in deep Chandra surveys. The limit on an extended hot intracluster medium in the Chandra data is S(1-6keV) < 1.9e-15 erg/cm2/s (3-sigma, 30" radius aperture). Though the X-ray observations do not confirm the existence of a massive, bound cluster at z>1, the success of the optical/near-infrared targeting of early-type systems near the radio galaxy validates searches using radio galaxies as beacons for high-redshift large-scale structure. We interpret CL0442+0202 to be a massive cluster in the process of formation.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figure

    An X-ray Selected Galaxy Cluster at z=1.11 in the Rosat Deep Cluster Survey

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    We report the discovery of an X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at z =1.11. RDCS J0910+5422 was selected as an X-ray cluster candidate in the ROSAT Deep Cluster Survey on the basis of its spatial extent in a Rosat PSPC image. Deep optical and near-IR imaging reveal a red galaxy overdensity around the peak of the X-ray emission, with a significant excess of objects with J-K and I-K colors typical of elliptical galaxies at z ~ 1.0. Spectroscopic observations at the Keck II telescope secured 9 galaxy redshifts in the range 1.095<z<1.120 yielding a mean cluster redshift of =1.106. Eight of these galaxies lie within a 30 arcsec radius around the peak X-ray emission. A deep Chandra ACIS exposure on this field shows extended X-ray morphology and allows the X-ray spectrum of the intracluster medium to be measured. The cluster has a bolometric luminosity L_x = 2.48^{+0.33}_{-0.26} x 10^44 ergs/s, a temperature of kT = 7.2^{+2.2}_{-1.4} keV, and a mass within r = 1 Mpc of 7.0 x 10^14 M_sun (H_0=65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_m = 0.3, and Lambda = 0.7). The spatial distribution of the cluster members is elongated, which is not due to an observational selection effect, and followed by the X-ray morphology. The X-ray surface brightness profile and the spectrophotometric properties of the cluster members suggest that this is an example of a massive cluster in an advanced stage of formation with a hot ICM and an old galaxy population already in place at z > 1.Comment: 19 pages, 7 figures: Figures 1,4,6 included as separate jpg files. Accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journa

    SPICES II. Optical and Near-Infrared Identifications of Faint X-Ray Sources from Deep Chandra Observations of Lynx

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    We present our first results on field X-ray sources detected in a deep, 184.7 ks observation with the ACIS-I camera on Chandra. The observations target the Lynx field of SPICES, and contains three known X-ray-emitting clusters out to z=1.27. Not including the known clusters, in the 17'x17' ACIS-I field we detect 132 sources in the 0.5-2 keV (soft) X-ray band down to a limiting flux of \~1.7e-16 erg/cm2/s and 111 sources in the 2-10 keV (hard) X-ray band down to a limiting flux of ~1.3e-15 erg/cm2/s. The combined catalog contains a total of 153 sources, of which 42 are detected only in the soft band and 21 are detected only in the hard band. Confirming previous Chandra results, we find that the fainter sources have harder X-ray spectra, providing a consistent solution to the long-standing `spectral paradox'. From deep optical and near-infrared follow-up data, 77% of the X-ray sources have optical counterparts to I=24 and 71% of the X-ray sources have near-infrared counterparts to K=20. Four of the 24 sources in the near-IR field are associated with extremely red objects (EROs; I-K>4). We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts with the Keck telescopes of 18 of the Lynx Chandra sources. These sources comprise a mix of broad-lined active galaxies, apparently normal galaxies, and two late-type Galactic dwarfs. Intriguingly, one Galactic source is identified with an M7 dwarf exhibiting non-transient, hard X-ray emission. We review non-AGN mechanisms to produce X-ray emission and discuss properties of the Lynx Chandra sample in relation to other samples of X-ray and non-X-ray sources.Comment: 42 pages, 16 figures. Accepted for publication in the May 2002 Astronomical Journa

    A Six-Planet System Around the Star HD 34445

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    We present a new precision radial velocity dataset that reveals a multi-planet system orbiting the G0V star HD 34445. Our 18-year span consists of 333 precision radial velocity observations, 56 of which were previously published, and 277 which are new data from Keck Observatory, Magellan at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Automated Planet Finder at Lick Observatory. These data indicate the presence of six planet candidates in Keplerian motion about the host star with periods of 1057, 215, 118, 49, 677, and 5700 days, and minimum masses of 0.63, 0.17, 0.1, 0.05, 0.12 and 0.38 Jupiter masses respectively. The HD 34445 planetary system, with its high degree of multiplicity, its long orbital periods, and its induced stellar radial velocity half-amplitudes in the range 2 m s−1≲K≲5 m s−12 \,{\rm m\, s^{-1}} \lesssim K \lesssim 5\,{\rm m\, s^{-1}} is fundamentally unlike either our own solar system (in which only Jupiter and Saturn induce significant reflex velocities for the Sun), or the Kepler multiple-transiting systems (which tend to have much more compact orbital configurations)Comment: 10 pages, 11 figure

    First Results from the SPICES Survey

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    We present first results from SPICES, the Spectroscopic, Photometric, Infrared-Chosen Extragalactic Survey. SPICES is comprised of four ~30 square arcminute high Galactic latitude fields with deep BRIzJK imaging reaching depths of ~25th magnitude (AB) in the optical and ~23rd magnitude (AB) in the near-infrared. To date we have 626 spectroscopic redshifts for infrared-selected SPICES sources with K<20 (Vega). The project is poised to address galaxy formation and evolution to redshift z~2. We discuss initial results from the survey, including the surface density of extremely red objects and the fraction of infrared sources at z>1. One of the SPICES fields has been the target of a deep 190 ksec Chandra exposure; we discuss initial results from analysis of that data set. Finally, we briefly discuss a successful campaign to identify high-redshift sources in the SPICES fields.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures; to appear in the proceedings of the ESO/ECF workshop on "Deep Fields", 9-12 Oktober 2000, Garchin

    Evolution of the Color-Magnitude Relation in Galaxy Clusters at z ~1 from the ACS Intermediate Redshift Cluster Survey

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    We apply detailed observations of the Color-Magnitude Relation (CMR) with the ACS/HST to study galaxy evolution in eight clusters at z~1. The early-type red sequence is well defined and elliptical and lenticular galaxies lie on similar CMRs. We analyze CMR parameters as a function of redshift, galaxy properties and cluster mass. For bright galaxies (M_B < -21mag), the CMR scatter of the elliptical population in cluster cores is smaller than that of the S0 population, although the two become similar at faint magnitudes. While the bright S0 population consistently shows larger scatter than the ellipticals, the scatter of the latter increases in the peripheral cluster regions. If we interpret these results as due to age differences, bright elliptical galaxies in cluster cores are on average older than S0 galaxies and peripheral elliptical galaxies (by about 0.5Gyr). CMR zero point, slope, and scatter in the (U-B)_z=0 rest-frame show no significant evolution out to redshift z~1.3 nor significant dependence on cluster mass. Two of our clusters display CMR zero points that are redder (by ~2sigma) than the average (U-B)_z=0 of our sample. We also analyze the fraction of morphological early-type and late-type galaxies on the red sequence. We find that, while in the majority of the clusters most (80% to 90%) of the CMR population is composed of early-type galaxies, in the highest redshift, low mass cluster of our sample, the CMR late-type/early-type fractions are similar (~50%), with most of the late-type population composed of galaxies classified as S0/a. This trend is not correlated with the cluster's X-ray luminosity, nor with its velocity dispersion, and could be a real evolution with redshift.Comment: ApJ, in press, 27 pages, 22 figure

    The rest-frame KK-band luminosity function of galaxies in clusters to z=1.3z=1.3

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    We derive the rest-frame KK-band luminosity function for galaxies in 32 clusters at 0.6<z<1.30.6 < z < 1.3 using deep 3.6μ3.6\mum and 4.5μ4.5\mum imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC). The luminosity functions approximate the stellar mass function of the cluster galaxies. Their dependence on redshift indicates that massive cluster galaxies (to the characteristic luminosity MK∗M^*_K) are fully assembled at least at z∼1.3z \sim 1.3 and that little significant accretion takes place at later times. The existence of massive, highly evolved galaxies at these epochs is likely to represent a significant challenge to theories of hierarchical structure formation where such objects are formed by the late accretion of spheroidal systems at z<1z < 1.Comment: Accepted for publication in AJ; includes data table of k-correction

    Chandra Detection of a TypeII Quasar at z=3.288

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    We report on observations of a TypeII quasar at redshift z=3.288, identified as a hard X-ray source in a 185 ks observation with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and as a high-redshift photometric candidate from deep, multiband optical imaging. CXOJ084837.9+445352 (hereinafter CXO52) shows an unusually hard X-ray spectrum from which we infer an absorbing column density N(H) = (4.8+/-2.1)e23 / cm2 (90% confidence) and an implied unabsorbed 2-10 keV rest-frame luminosity of L(2-10) = 3.3e44 ergs/s, well within the quasar regime. Hubble Space Telescope imaging shows CXO52 to be elongated with slight morphological differences between the WFPC2 F814W and NICMOS F160W bands. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of CXO52 show high-ionization emission lines with velocity widths ~1000 km/s and flux ratios similar to a Seyfert2 galaxy or radio galaxy. The latter are the only class of high-redshift TypeII luminous AGN which have been extensively studied to date. Unlike radio galaxies, however, CXO52 is radio quiet, remaining undetected at radio wavelengths to fairly deep limits, f(4.8GHz) < 40 microJy. High-redshift TypeII quasars, expected from unification models of active galaxies and long-thought necessary to explain the X-ray background, are poorly constrained observationally with few such systems known. We discuss recent observations of similar TypeII quasars and detail search techniques for such systems: namely (1) X-ray selection, (2) radio selection, (3) multi-color imaging selection, and (4) narrow-band imaging selection. Such studies are likely to begin identifying luminous, high-redshift TypeII systems in large numbers. We discuss the prospects for these studies and their implications to our understanding of the X-ray background.Comment: 28 pages, 5 figures; to appear in The Astrophysical Journa

    The HDUV Survey: A Revised Assessment of the Relationship between UV Slope and Dust Attenuation for High-redshift Galaxies

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    We use a newly assembled sample of 3545 star-forming galaxies with secure spectroscopic, grism, and photometric redshifts at z = 1.5–2.5 to constrain the relationship between UV slope (β) and dust attenuation (L IR/L UV ≡ IRX). Our sample significantly extends the range of L UV and β probed in previous UV-selected samples, including those as faint as M 1600 = −17.4 (≃0.05LUV∗\simeq 0.05{L}_{\mathrm{UV}}^{* }) and −2.6 lesssim β lesssim 0.0. IRX is measured using stacks of deep Herschel data, and the results are compared with predictions of the IRX−β relation for different assumptions of the stellar population model and obscuration curve. We find that z = 1.5–2.5 galaxies have an IRX−β relation that is consistent with the predictions for an SMC curve if we invoke subsolar-metallicity models currently favored for high-redshift galaxies, while the commonly assumed starburst curve overpredicts the IRX at a given β by a factor of gsim3. IRX is roughly constant with L UV for L UV gsim 3 × 109 L ⊙. Thus, the commonly observed trend of fainter galaxies having bluer β may simply reflect bluer intrinsic slopes for such galaxies, rather than lower obscurations. The IRX−β relation for young/low-mass galaxies at z gsim 2 implies a dust curve that is steeper than the SMC. The lower attenuations and higher ionizing photon output for low-metallicity stellar populations point to Lyman continuum production efficiencies, ξ ion, that may be elevated by a factor of ≈2 relative to the canonical value for L* galaxies, aiding in their ability to keep the universe ionized at z ~ 2
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