121 research outputs found

    Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

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    Perfusion-CT monitoring of cryo-ablated renal cells tumors

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>No single and thoroughly validated imaging method in monitoring of cryoablated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is available. The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion CT (pCT) in evaluating the hemodynamic response of RCC.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>15 patients (14 male, 1 female; age range, 43-81 years; mean age, 62 years) with cryoablated RCC via a transperitoneal approach, underwent to pCT 6-8 months after cryo-therapy. pCT was performed for 65 seconds after intravenous injection of contrast medium (80 mL, 370 mg iodine per millilitre, 4 mL/sec). Perfusion parameters (Time/Density curve; Blood flow, BF; Blood Volume, BV; Mean Transit Time, MTT; Permeability-Surface Area Product, PS) were sampled in the cryoablated tumor area and in ipsilateral renal cortex using deconvolution-based method. A tumor was considered to be not responsive to treatment by CT evidence of pathological contrast enhancement in the cryoablated area or renal mass persistence compared with the preoperative CT control. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before the study.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>After cryotherapy, successfully ablated tumor (n = 13) showed decrease in BV (5,39 +/- 1,28 mL/100 g), BF (69,92 +/- 20,12 mL/100 g/min) and PS (16,66 +/- 5,67 mL/100 g/min) value and increased value of MTT (25,35 +/- 4,3 sec) compared with those of normal renal cortex (BV: 117,86 +/- 31,87 mL/100 g/min; BF: 392,39 +/- 117,32 mL/100 g/min; MTT: 18,02 +/- 3,6 sec; PS: 81,68 +/- 22,75 mL/100 g/min). In one patient, assessment of perfusion parameters was not feasible for breathing artifacts. One tumor showed poor response to treatment by the evidence of nodular contrast enhancement in the region encompassing the original lesion. Two typical enhancement patterns were obtained comparing the Time-Density curves of responsive and not responsive ablated tumors.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Perfusion CT seems to be a feasible and promising technique in monitoring the effects of cryoablation therapy.</p

    Acquisition Parameters Influence Diffusion Metrics Effectiveness in Probing Prostate Tumor and Age-Related Microstructure

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    : This study aimed to investigate the Diffusion-Tensor-Imaging (DTI) potential in the detection of microstructural changes in prostate cancer (PCa) in relation to the diffusion weight (b-value) and the associated diffusion length lD. Thirty-two patients (age range = 50-87 years) with biopsy-proven PCa underwent Diffusion-Weighted-Imaging (DWI) at 3T, using single non-zero b-value or groups of b-values up to b = 2500 s/mm2. The DTI maps (mean-diffusivity, MD; fractional-anisotropy, FA; axial and radial diffusivity, D// and D┴), visual quality, and the association between DTI-metrics and Gleason Score (GS) and DTI-metrics and age were discussed in relation to diffusion compartments probed by water molecules at different b-values. DTI-metrics differentiated benign from PCa tissue (p ≤ 0.0005), with the best discriminative power versus GS at b-values ≥ 1500 s/mm2, and for b-values range 0-2000 s/mm2, when the lD is comparable to the size of the epithelial compartment. The strongest linear correlations between MD, D//, D┴, and GS were found at b = 2000 s/mm2 and for the range 0-2000 s/mm2. A positive correlation between DTI parameters and age was found in benign tissue. In conclusion, the use of the b-value range 0-2000 s/mm2 and b-value = 2000 s/mm2 improves the contrast and discriminative power of DTI with respect to PCa. The sensitivity of DTI parameters to age-related microstructural changes is worth consideration

    Open Versus Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis of Surgical and Oncological Outcomes

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    PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the surgical management of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed on January 2, 2015 using PubMed. Article selection proceeded according to PRISMA criteria. Studies comparing open adrenalectomy (OA) to LA for ACC and including at least 10 cases per each surgical approach were included. Odds ratio (OR) was used for all binary variables, and weight mean difference (WMD) was used for the continuous parameters. Pooled estimates were calculated with the fixed-effect model, if no significant heterogeneity was identified; alternatively, the random-effect model was used when significant heterogeneity was detected. Main demographics, surgical outcomes, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Nine studies published between 2010 and 2014 were deemed eligible and included in the analysis, all of them being retrospective case-control studies. Overall, they included 240 LA and 557 OA cases. Tumors treated with laparoscopy were significantly smaller in size (WMD -3.41 cm; confidence interval [CI] -4.91, -1.91; p &lt; 0.001), and a higher proportion of them (80.8 %) more at a localized (I-II) stage compared with open surgery (67.7 %) (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; CI 1.8, 4.2; p &lt; 0.001). Hospitalization time was in favor of laparoscopy, with a WMD of -2.5 days (CI -3.3, -1.7; p &lt; 0.001). There was no difference in the overall recurrence rate between LA and OA (relative risk [RR] 1.09; CI 0.83, 1.43; p = 0.53), whereas development of peritoneal carcinomatosis was higher for LA (RR 2.39; CI 1.41, 4.04; p = 0.001). No difference could be found for time to recurrence (WMD -8.2 months; CI -18.2, 1.7; p = 0.11), as well as for cancer specific mortality (OR 0.68; CI 0.44, 1.05; p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: OA should still be considered the standard surgical management of ACC. LA can offer a shorter hospital stay and possibly a faster recovery. Therefore, this minimally invasive approach can certainly play a role in this setting, but it should be only offered in carefully selected cases to avoid jeopardizing the oncological outcome.PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the surgical management of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed on January 2, 2015 using PubMed. Article selection proceeded according to PRISMA criteria. Studies comparing open adrenalectomy (OA) to LA for ACC and including at least 10 cases per each surgical approach were included. Odds ratio (OR) was used for all binary variables, and weight mean difference (WMD) was used for the continuous parameters. Pooled estimates were calculated with the fixed-effect model, if no significant heterogeneity was identified; alternatively, the random-effect model was used when significant heterogeneity was detected. Main demographics, surgical outcomes, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Nine studies published between 2010 and 2014 were deemed eligible and included in the analysis, all of them being retrospective case-control studies. Overall, they included 240 LA and 557 OA cases. Tumors treated with laparoscopy were significantly smaller in size (WMD -3.41 cm; confidence interval [CI] -4.91, -1.91; p &lt; 0.001), and a higher proportion of them (80.8 %) more at a localized (I-II) stage compared with open surgery (67.7 %) (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; CI 1.8, 4.2; p &lt; 0.001). Hospitalization time was in favor of laparoscopy, with a WMD of -2.5 days (CI -3.3, -1.7; p &lt; 0.001). There was no difference in the overall recurrence rate between LA and OA (relative risk [RR] 1.09; CI 0.83, 1.43; p = 0.53), whereas development of peritoneal carcinomatosis was higher for LA (RR 2.39; CI 1.41, 4.04; p = 0.001). No difference could be found for time to recurrence (WMD -8.2 months; CI -18.2, 1.7; p = 0.11), as well as for cancer specific mortality (OR 0.68; CI 0.44, 1.05; p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: OA should still be considered the standard surgical management of ACC. LA can offer a shorter hospital stay and possibly a faster recovery. Therefore, this minimally invasive approach can certainly play a role in this setting, but it should be only offered in carefully selected cases to avoid jeopardizing the oncological outcome

    Aged mesenchymal stem cells and inflammation: from pathology to potential therapeutic strategies

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    Natural ageing of organisms and corresponding age-related diseases result mainly from stem cell ageing and "inflammaging". Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit very high immune-regulating capacity and are promising candidates for immune-related disease treatment. However, the effect of MSC application is not satisfactory for some patients, especially in elderly individuals. With ageing, MSCs undergo many changes, including altered cell population reduction and differentiation ability, reduced migratory and homing capacity and, most important, defective immunosuppression. It is necessary to explore the relationship between the "inflammaging" and aged MSCs to prevent age-related diseases and increase the therapeutic effects of MSCs. In this review, we discuss changes in naturally ageing MSCs mainly from an inflammation perspective and propose some ideas for rejuvenating aged MSCs in future treatments

    Penile lenghthening original technique using a pubo-cavernous spacer. Long term results from a series of over 200 patients

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    Introduction: We report our long experience in the surgical treatment of patients requesting penile lengthening by suspensory ligament release and placement of a custom-made soft silicone pubo-cavernous spacer. The aim was to show that with this surgical technique the results obtained are maintained over time. It is crucial to achieve postoperative satisfaction of these patients who show fragility and self-esteem problems. Methods: From 1999 to 2020, we treated 245 patients with congenital or acquired penile brevity. We carefully analysed the preoperative and postoperative (at 6, 12, 24 and 48 months) penile size of the patients to evaluate whether this technique could allow the long-term maintenance of aesthetic results. We also assessed preoperative erectile function and we focused on the psychological aspects to avoid surgery in patients with dysmorphophobia. This original technique involves the section of the suspensory ligament and the implantation of a silicone spacer between the pubic symphysis and the corpora cavernosa. This spacer is conformed to the patient anatomy and maintains the relationship between the anatomical structures unchanged over time. Sexual self-esteem and patient satisfaction were assessed with the APPSSI questionnaire. Results: The mean increase in penile length was about 2.5 cm in flaccid state and 1.9 cm in stretched state. There were no injuries of the neurovascular bundle or urethra, and no erectile dysfunction was noted. These results persisted at 6, 12, 24 and 48 months without significant differences. Over 80% of patients stated that they were completely satisfied with the results obtained. This satisfaction remained stable along follow up. Conclusion: The section of the suspensory ligament and the implant of the soft silicone spacer provide real penis elongation with satisfactory results that persist over time. This technique avoids the frequent complication of short-term shortening due to the scar adhesions of the edges of the dissected ligament. The high aesthetic satisfaction of patients is stable at controls at 6, 12, 24 and 48 months

    Macrophage polarization and metabolism in atherosclerosis

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    : Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of fatty deposits in the inner walls of vessels. these plaques restrict blood flow and lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke. the development of atherosclerosis is influenced by a variety of factors, including age, genetics, lifestyle, and underlying health conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes. atherosclerotic plaques in stable form are characterized by slow growth, which leads to luminal stenosis, with low embolic potential or in unstable form, which contributes to high risk for thrombotic and embolic complications with rapid clinical onset. In this complex scenario of atherosclerosis, macrophages participate in the whole process, including the initiation, growth and eventually rupture and wound healing stages of artery plaque formation. macrophages in plaques exhibit high heterogeneity and plasticity, which affect the evolving plaque microenvironment, e.g., leading to excessive lipid accumulation, cytokine hyperactivation, hypoxia, apoptosis and necroptosis. the metabolic and functional transitions of plaque macrophages in response to plaque microenvironmental factors not only influence ongoing and imminent inflammatory responses within the lesions but also directly dictate atherosclerotic progression or regression. In this review, we discuss the origin of macrophages within plaques, their phenotypic diversity, metabolic shifts, and fate and the roles they play in the dynamic progression of atherosclerosis. It also describes how macrophages interact with other plaque cells, particularly T cells. ultimately, targeting pathways involved in macrophage polarization may lead to innovative and promising approaches for precision medicine. further insights into the landscape and biological features of macrophages within atherosclerotic plaques may offer valuable information for optimizing future clinical treatment for atherosclerosis by targeting macrophages

    Changes in renal function after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: analysis of a large multicenter cohort (Radical Nephroureterectomy Outcomes (RaNeO) Research Consortium)

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    Purpose To investigate prevalence and predictors of renal function variation in a multicenter cohort treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods Patients from 17 tertiary centers were included. Renal function variation was evaluated at postoperative day (POD)-1, 6 and 12 months. Timepoints differences were Delta 1 = POD-1 eGFR - baseline eGFR; Delta 2 = 6 months eGFR - POD-1 eGFR; Delta 3 = 12 months eGFR - 6 months eGFR. We defined POD-1 acute kidney injury (AKI) as an increase in serum creatinine by >= 0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5 1.9-fold from baseline. Additionally, a cutoff of 60 ml/min in eGFR was considered to define renal function decline at 6 and 12 months. Logistic regression (LR) and linear mixed (LM) models were used to evaluate the association between clinical factors and eGFR decline and their interaction with follow-up. Results A total of 576 were included, of these 409(71.0%) and 403(70.0%) had an eGFR < 60 ml/min at 6 and 12 months, respectively, and 239(41.5%) developed POD-1 AKI. In multivariable LR analysis, age (Odds Ratio, OR 1.05, p < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.44, p = 0.003), POD-1 AKI (OR 2.88, p < 0.001) and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.58, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 6 months. Age (OR 1.06, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (OR 2.68, p = 0.007), POD-1 AKI (OR 1.83, p = 0.02), and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.80, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 12 months. In LM models, age (p = 0.019), hydronephrosis (p < 0.001), POD-1 AKI (p < 0.001) and pT-stage (p = 0.001) influenced renal function variation (ss 9.2 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Conclusion Age, preoperative eGFR and POD-1 AKI are independent predictors of 6 and 12 months renal function decline after RNU for UTUC
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