273 research outputs found

    How Informative Is Floating NAV When Securities Trade Infrequently?

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    We examine if a floating net asset value (NAV) increases the transparency of risk for investors. Using closed-income fixed income funds we find little evidence that a floating NAV helps investors better understand the value and risk of a fund when a fund\u27s assets trade infrequently. This potentially informs the debate regarding the adoption of a floating NAV in the money market industry. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that the benefits of floating NAV will outweigh the costs

    Use of the integrated health interview series: trends in medical provider utilization (1972-2008)

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    The Integrated Health Interview Series (IHIS) is a public data repository that harmonizes four decades of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the premier source of information on the health of the U.S. population. Since 1957 the survey has collected information on health behaviors, health conditions, and health care access. The long running time series of the NHIS is a powerful tool for health research. However, efforts to fully utilize its time span are obstructed by difficult documentation, unstable variable and coding definitions, and non-ignorable sample re-designs. To overcome these hurdles the IHIS, a freely available and web-accessible resource, provides harmonized NHIS data from 1969-2010. This paper describes the challenges of working with the NHIS and how the IHIS reduces such burdens. To demonstrate one potential use of the IHIS we examine utilization patterns in the U.S. from 1972-2008

    Current trends in initial management of hypopharyngeal cancer: The declining use of open surgery

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    Squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx represents a distinct clinical entity. Most patients present with significant comorbidities and advanced‚Äźstage disease. The overall survival is relatively poor because of high rates of regional and distant metastasis at presentation or early in the course of the disease. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial in the overall management of these patients to achieve the best results and maintain or improve functional results. Traditionally, operable hypopharyngeal cancer has been treated by total (occasionally partial) laryngectomy and partial or circumferential pharyngectomy, followed by reconstruction and postoperative radiotherapy in most cases. Efforts to preserve speech and swallowing function in the surgical treatment of hypopharyngeal (and laryngeal) cancer have resulted in a declining use of total laryngopharyngectomy and improved reconstructive efforts, including microvascular free tissue transfer. There are many surgical, as well as nonsurgical, options available for organ and function preservation, which report equally effective tumor control and survival. The selection of appropriate treatment is of crucial importance in the achievement of optimal results for these patients. In this article, several aspects of surgical and nonsurgical approaches in the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer are discussed. Future studies must be carefully designed within clearly defined populations and use uniform terminology and standardized functional assessment and declare appropriate patient or disease endpoints. These studies should focus on improvement of resultsx, without increasing patient morbidity. In this respect, technical improvements in radiotherapy such as intensity‚Äźmodulated radiotherapy, advances in supportive care, and incorporation of newer systemic agents such as targeted therapy, are relevant developments. ¬© 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/90087/1/21613_ftp.pd

    Assessment of burnout in veterinary medical students using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educational Survey: a survey during two semesters

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    BACKGROUND: Burnout among veterinary students can result from known stressors in the absence of a support system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey (MBI-ES) to assess burnout in veterinary students and evaluate the factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. METHODS: The MBI-ES was administered to first (Class of 2016) and second year (Class of 2015) veterinary medical students during the 2012-2013 academic year in the fall and spring semesters. Factor analysis and test reliability for the survey were determined. Mean scores for the subscales determining burnout namely emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and lack of personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated for both classes in the 2 semesters. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate other factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. RESULTS: A non-probability sampling method was implemented consisting of a voluntary sample of 170 and 123 students in the fall and spring semesters, respectively. Scores for EE, DP and PA were not different between the 2 classes within the same semester. Mean‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČSD scores for EE, DP and PA for the fall semester were 22.9‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ9.6, 5.0‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ4.8 and 32.3‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ6.7, respectively. Mean‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČSD scores for EE, DP and PA the spring semester were 27.8‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ10.7, 6.5‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ6.1and 31.7‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ6.8, respectively. The EE score was higher in spring compared to fall while DP and PA scores were not different between the 2 semesters. Living arrangements specifically as to whether or not a student lived with another veterinary medical students was the only variable significantly associated with the MBI-ES scores. Students in this study had moderate levels of burnout based on the MBI-ES scores. CONCLUSIONS: The MBI-ES was an acceptable instrument for assessing burnout in veterinary medical students. The EE scores were higher in the spring semester as compared to the fall semester. Thus students in the first and second years of veterinary school under the current curriculum experience the greatest levels of emotional exhaustion during the spring semester. This has administrative implications for the school, when considering the allocation and use of resources for student support systems during each semester

    Cell Adhesion Molecules, Leukocyte Trafficking, and Strategies to Reduce Leukocyte Infiltration

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    Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions are mediated by various cell adhesion molecules. These interactions are important for leukocyte extravasation and trafficking in all domestic animal species. An initial slowing of leukocytes on the vascular endothelium is mediated by selectins. This event is followed by (1) activation of ő≤2 integrins after leukocyte exposure to cytokines and proinflammatory mediators, (2) adherence of leukocyte ő≤2 integrins to vascular endothelial ligands (eg, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]), (3) extravasation of leukocytes into tissues through tight junctions of endothelial cells mediated by platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), and (4) perivascular migration through the extracellular matrix via ő≤1 integrins. Inhibiting excessive leukocyte egress and subsequent free radical-mediated damage caused by leukocyte components may attenuate or eliminate tissue damage. Several methods have been used to modify leukocyte infiltration in various animal models. These methods include nonspecific inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and glucocorticoids, inhibition of cytokines and cytokine receptors, and inhibition of specific types of cell adhesion molecules, with inhibitors such as peptides and antibodies to ő≤2integrins, and inhibitors of selectins, ICAMs, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). By understanding the cellular and molecular events in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, therapeutic strategies are being developed in several animal models and diseases in domestic animal species. Such therapies may have clinical benefit in the future to overcome tissue damage induced by excessive leukocyte infiltration
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