389 research outputs found

    Geochemistry of reduced inorganic sulfur, reactive iron, and organic carbon in fluvial and marine surface sediment in the Laizhou Bay region, China

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    Understanding the geochemical cycling of sulfur in sediments is important because it can have implications for both modern environments (e.g., deterioration of water quality) and interpretation of the ancient past (e.g., sediment C/S ratios can be used as indicators of palaeodepositional environment). This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of sulfur, iron, and organic carbon in fluvial and coastal surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay region, China. A total of 63 sediment samples were taken across the whole Laizhou Bay marine region and the 14 major tidal rivers draining into it. Acid volatile sulfur, chromium (II)-reducible sulfur and elemental sulfur, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen were present in higher concentrations in the fluvial sediment than in the marine sediment of Laizhou Bay. The composition of reduced inorganic sulfur in surface sediments was dominated by acid volatile sulfur and chromium (II)-reducible sulfur. In fluvial sediments, sulfate reduction and formation of reduced inorganic sulfur were controlled by TOC and reactive iron synchronously. High C/S ratios in the marine sediments indicate that the diagenetic processes in Laizhou Bay have been affected by rapid deposition of sediment from the Yellow River in recent decades

    Bacterially mediated removal of phosphorus and cycling of nitrate and sulfate in the waste stream of a "zero-discharge" recirculating mariculture system

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    Simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by microbial biofilters has been used in a variety of water treatment systems including treatment systems in aquaculture. In this study, phosphorus, nitrate and sulfate cycling in the anaerobic loop of a zero-discharge, recirculating mariculture system was investigated using detailed geochemical measurements in the sludge layer of the digestion basin. High concentrations of nitrate and sulfate, circulating in the overlying water (~15 mM), were removed by microbial respiration in the sludge resulting in a sulfide accumulation of up to 3 mM. Modelling of the observed S and O isotopic ratios in the surface sludge suggested that, with time, major respiration processes shifted from heterotrophic nitrate and sulfate reduction to autotrophic nitrate reduction. The much higher inorganic P content of the sludge relative to the fish feces is attributed to conversion of organic P to authigenic apatite. This conclusion is supported by: (a) X-ray diffraction analyses, which pointed to an accumulation of a calcium phosphate mineral phase that was different from P phases found in the feces, (b) the calculation that the pore waters of the sludge were highly oversaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite (saturation index = 4.87) and (c) there was a decrease in phosphate (and in the Ca/Na molar ratio) in the pore waters simultaneous with an increase in ammonia showing there had to be an additional P removal process at the same time as the heterotrophic breakdown of organic matter

    Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine

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    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included

    Carbon-13 in groundwater from English and Norwegian crystalline rock aquifers: a tool for deducing the origin of alkalinity?

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    The 13C signature is evaluated for various environmental compartments (vegetation, soils, soil gas, rock and groundwater) for three crystalline rock terrains in England and Norway. The data are used to evaluate the extent to which stable carbon isotopic data can be applied to deduce whether the alkalinity in crystalline bedrock groundwaters has its origin in hydrolysis of carbonate or silicate minerals by CO2. The resolution of this issue has profound implications for the role of weathering of crystalline rocks as a global sink for CO2. In the investigated English terrain (Isles of Scilly), groundwaters are hydrochemically immature and DIC is predominantly in the form of carbonic acid with a soil gas signature. In the Norwegian terrains, the evidence is not conclusive but is consistent with a significant fraction of the groundwater DIC being derived from silicate hydrolysis by CO2. A combined consideration of pH, alkalinity and carbon isotope data, plotted alongside theoretical evolutionary pathways on bivariate diagrams, strongly suggests real evolutionary pathways are likely to be hybrid, potentially involving both open and closed CO2 conditions

    A DFN Approach to Evaluating the Hydrogeological Significance of Lithostatic Unloading in Fractured Strata Around Open-Pit Workings

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    The majority of open-pit mineral workings are established in hydrogeological environments in which unsaturated drainage or saturated groundwater flow occurs predominantly via discrete fracture networks. Stress relaxation resulting from open-pit mineral extraction can lead to a change in host rock fracture network configuration and fracture hydraulic properties, with the potential to change local hydrogeological characteristics and groundwater flow regimes. Research being undertaken at the University of Leeds is applying a DFN approach to investigate the hydrogeological significance of such effects in relation to methodologies for impact assessment at mineral sites. The paper presents a summary of the research approach and preliminary results. A discrete finite element approach to geomechanical modelling has been undertaken with simulation of DFN evolution in response to lithostatic unloading for a range of pre-existing discontinuity configurations, lithological types and variations in in-situ stress regimes. Preliminary modelling results have provided improved understanding of the vertical and lateral extent of potential DFN response for a range of excavation profiles. Research results will be used to define conditions under which open-pit mineral extraction could lead to hydrogeologically significant change in fracture flow drainage characteristics at a scale relevant to hydrogeological impact assessment for new and existing mineral workings

    A rest-frame near-IR study of clumps in galaxies at 1 < z < 2 using JWST/NIRCam: connection to galaxy bulges

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    A key question in galaxy evolution has been the importance of the apparent `clumpiness' of high redshift galaxies. Until now, this property has been primarily investigated in rest-frame UV, limiting our understanding of their relevance. Are they short-lived or are associated with more long-lived massive structures that are part of the underlying stellar disks? We use JWST/NIRCam imaging from CEERS to explore the connection between the presence of these `clumps' in a galaxy and its overall stellar morphology, in a mass-complete (logM/M>10.0log\,M_{*}/M_{\odot} > 10.0) sample of galaxies at 1.0<z<2.01.0 < z < 2.0. Exploiting the uninterrupted access to rest-frame optical and near-IR light, we simultaneously map the clumps in galactic disks across our wavelength coverage, along with measuring the distribution of stars among their bulges and disks. Firstly, we find that the clumps are not limited to rest-frame UV and optical, but are also apparent in near-IR with 60%\sim 60\,\% spatial overlap. This rest-frame near-IR detection indicates that clumps would also feature in the stellar-mass distribution of the galaxy. A secondary consequence is that these will hence be expected to increase the dynamical friction within galactic disks leading to gas inflow. We find a strong negative correlation between how clumpy a galaxy is and strength of the bulge. This firmly suggests an evolutionary connection, either through clumps driving bulge growth, or the bulge stabilizing the galaxy against clump formation, or a combination of the two. Finally, we find evidence of this correlation differing from rest-frame optical to near-IR, which could suggest a combination of varying formation modes for the clumps.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    Hydro-biogeochemical coupling beneath a large polythermal Arctic glacier: implications for subice sheet biogeochemistry

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    We analyze the interannual chemical and isotopic composition of runoff from a large, high Arctic valley glacier over a 5 year period, during which drainage evolved from a long-residence-time drainage system feeding an artesian subglacial upwelling (SGU) at the glacier terminus to a shorter-residence-time drainage system feeding an ice-marginal channel (IMC). Increased icemelt inputs to the SGU are thought to have triggered this evolution. This sequence of events provides a unique opportunity to identify coupling between subglacial hydrology and biogeochemical processes within drainage systems of differing residence time. The biogeochemistry of the SGU is consistent with prolonged contact between meltwaters and subglacial sediments, in which silicate dissolution is enhanced, anoxic processes (e.g., sulphate reduction) prevail, and microbially generated CO2 and sulphide oxidation drive mineral dissolution. Solute in the IMC was mainly derived from moraine pore waters which are added to the channel via extraglacial streams. These pore waters acquire solute predominantly via sulphide oxidation coupled to carbonate/silicate dissolution. We present the first evidence that microbially mediated processes may contribute a substantial proportion (80% in this case) of the total glacial solute flux, which includes coupling between microbial CO2-generation and silicate/carbonate dissolution. The latter suggests the presence of biofilms in subglacial/ice-marginal sediments, where local perturbation of the geochemical environment by release of protons, organic acids, and ligands stimulates mineral dissolution. These data enable inferences to be made regarding biogeochemical processes in longer-residence-time glacial systems, with implications for the future exploration of Antarctic subglacial lakes and other wet-based ice sheet environments

    Tree height strongly affects estimates of water-use efficiency responses to climate and CO2 using isotopes

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    Various studies report substantial increases in intrinsic water-use efficiency (Wi), estimated using carbon isotopes in tree rings, suggesting trees are gaining increasingly more carbon per unit water lost due to increases in atmospheric CO2. Usually, reconstructions do not, however, correct for the effect of intrinsic developmental changes in Wi as trees grow larger. Here we show, by comparingWi across varying tree sizes at one CO2 level, that ignoring such developmental effects can severely affect inferences of trees' Wi. Wi doubled or even tripled over a trees' lifespan in three broadleaf species due to changes in tree height and light availability alone, and there are also weak trends for Pine trees. Developmental trends in broadleaf species are as large as the trends previously assigned to CO2 and climate. Credible future tree ring isotope studies require explicit accounting for species-specific developmental effects before CO2 and climate effects are inferred.Peer reviewe