14,952 research outputs found

    Qubit assisted probing of coherence between mesoscopic states of an apparatus

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    The Atomic Hypothesis

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    A review is presented of the origin and development of the atomic hypothesis from antiquity till about the first millennium of the common era.Comment: 5 pages; accepted for publication in Current Scienc

    Plasmon exchange model for superconductivity in Carbon nanotubes

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    Recent investigations of superconductivity in carbon nanotubes have shown that a single-wall zigzag nanotube can become superconducting at around 15 K. Theoretical studies of superconductivity in nanotubes using the traditional phonon exchange model, however, give a superconducting transition temperature TcT_c less than 1K. To explain the observed higher critical temperature we explo re the possibility of the plasmon exchange mechanism for superconductivity in nanotubes. We first calculate the effective interaction between electrons in a nanotube mediated by plasmon exchange and show that this interaction can become attractive. Using this attractive interaction in the modified Eliashberg theory for strong coupling superconductors, we then calculate the critical temperature TcT_c in a nanotube. We find that TcT_c is sensitively dependent on the dielectric constant of the medium, the effective mass of the electrons an d the radius of the nanotube. Our theoretical results can explain the observed TcT_c in a nanotube.Comment: 9 Pages, 3 Figure

    Fundamental bounds on quantum measurements with a mixed apparatus

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    We consider the apparatus in a quantum measurement process to be in a mixed state. We propose a simple upper bound on the probability of correctly distinguishing any number of mixed states. We use this to derive fundamental bounds on the efficiency of a measurement in terms of the temperature of the apparatus.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

    Ground State Entanglement in a Combination of Star And Ring Geometries Of Interacting Spins

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    We compare a star and a ring network of interacting spins in terms of the entanglement they can provide between the nearest and the next to nearest neighbor spins in the ground state. We then investigate whether this entanglement can be optimized by allowing the system to interact through a weighted combination of the star and the ring geometries. We find that such a weighted combination is indeed optimal in certain circumstances for providing the highest entanglement between two chosen spins. The entanglement shows jumps and counterintuitive behavior as the relative weighting of the star and the ring interactions is varied. We give an exact mathematical explanation of the behavior for a five qubit system (four spins in a ring and a central spin) and an intuitive explanation for larger systems. For the case of four spins in a ring plus a central spin, we demonstrate how a four qubit GHZ state can be generated as a simple derivative of the ground state. Our calculations also demonstrate that some of the multi-particle entangled states derivable from the ground state of a star network are sufficiently robust to the presence of nearest neighbor ring interactions.Comment: 15 page

    Dualism in Entanglement and Testing Quantum to Classical Transition of Identicity

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    We show a hitherto unexplored consequence of the property of identicity in quantum mechanics. If two identical objects, distinguished by a dynamical variable A, are in certain entangled states of another dynamical variable B, then, for such states, they are also entangled in variable A when distinguished from each other by variable B. This dualism is independent of quantum statistics. Departures from identicity of the objects due to arbitrarily small differences in their innate attributes destroy this dualism. A system independent scheme to test the dualism is formulated which is readily realizable with photons. This scheme can be performed without requiring the entangled objects to be brought together. Thus whether two macro-systems behave as quantum identical objects can be probed without the complications of scattering. Such a study would complement the program of testing the validity of quantum superposition principle in the macro-domain which has stimulated considerable experimentation.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Automated Diagnosis of Epilepsy Employing Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Based Features

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    This contribution reports an application of MultiFractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, MFDFA based novel feature extraction technique for automated detection of epilepsy. In fractal geometry, Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis MFDFA is a popular technique to examine the self-similarity of a nonlinear, chaotic and noisy time series. In the present research work, EEG signals representing healthy, interictal (seizure free) and ictal activities (seizure) are acquired from an existing available database. The acquired EEG signals of different states are at first analyzed using MFDFA. To requisite the time series singularity quantification at local and global scales, a novel set of fourteen different features. Suitable feature ranking employing students t-test has been done to select the most statistically significant features which are henceforth being used as inputs to a support vector machines (SVM) classifier for the classification of different EEG signals. Eight different classification problems have been presented in this paper and it has been observed that the overall classification accuracy using MFDFA based features are reasonably satisfactory for all classification problems. The performance of the proposed method are also found to be quite commensurable and in some cases even better when compared with the results published in existing literature studied on the similar data set.Comment: 20 page

    Uncovering a Nonclassicality of the Schr\"odinger Coherent State up to the Macro-Domain

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    The Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), based on the notions of realism and noninvasive measurability, is applied in the context of a linear harmonic oscillator. It is found that merely through observing at various instants which region of the potential well, the oscillating quantum object is in, the LGI can be violated without taking recourse to any ancillary quantum system. Strikingly, this violation reveals an unexplored nonclassicality of the state which is considered the most "classical-like" of all quantum states, namely the Schr\"odinger coherent state. In the macrolimit, the extent to which such nonclassicality persists for large values of mass and classical amplitudes of oscillation is quantitatively investigated. It is found that while for any given mass and oscillator frequency, a significant quantum violation of LGI can be obtained by suitably choosing the initial peak momentum of the coherent state wave packet, as the mass is sufficiently increased, actual observability of this violation becomes increasingly difficult. A feasible experimental setup for testing the predicted quantum mechanical violation of LGI is suggested using a trapped nano-object of ‚ąľ106‚ąí109\sim 10^6-10^9 amu mass

    Cosmological backreaction and the future evolution of an accelerating universe

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    We investigate the effect of backreaction due to inhomogeneities on the evolution of the present universe within the Buchert framework. Our analysis shows how backreaction from inhomogeneities in the presence of the cosmic event horizon causes the current acceleration of the Universe to slow down in the future and even lead in certain cases to the emergence of a future decelerating epoch.Comment: 3 pages, 1 figure. Summary of talk given at the 13th Marcel Grossmann Meeting. Submitted to conference proceeding

    Exchange interactions and Curie temperatures in Cr-based alloys in Zinc Blende structure: volume- and composition-dependence from first-principles calculations

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    We present calculations of the exchange interactions and Curie temperatures in Cr-based pnictides and chalcogenides of the form CrX with X=As, Sb, S, Se and Te, and the mixed alloys CrAs50_{50}X50_{50} with X=Sb, S, Se, and Te. The calculations are performed for Zinc Blende (ZB) structure for 12 values of the lattice parameter between 5.44 and 6.62 \AA, appropriate for some typical II-VI and III-V semiconducting substrates. Electronic structure is calculated via the linear muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO) method in the atomic sphere approximation (ASA), using empty spheres to optimize ASA-related errors. Whenever necessary, the results have been verified using the full-potential version of the method, FP-LMTO. The disorder effect in the As-sublattice for CrAs50_{50}X50_{50} (X=Sb, S, Se, Te) alloys is taken into account via the coherent potential approximation (CPA). Exchange interactions are calculated using the linear response method for the ferromagnetic (FM) reference states of the alloys, as well as the disordered local moments (DLM) states. These results are then used to estimate the Curie temperature from the low and high temperature side of the ferromagnetic/paramagnetic transition. Estimates of the Curie temperature are provided, based on the mean field and the more accurate random phase approximations. Dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions for some low values of the lattice parameter for the FM reference states in CrS, CrSe and CrTe prompted us to look for antiferromagnetic (AFM) configurations for these systems with energies lower than the corresponding FM and DLM values. Results for a limited number of such AFM calculations are discussed, identifying the AFM[111] state as a likely candidate for the ground state for these cases.Comment: 16 pages, 19 figures, revised according referee's comments, to appear in Phys. Rev.
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