13,012 research outputs found

    Multi-Qubit Gates in Arrays Coupled by 'Always On' Interactions

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    Recently there has been interest in the idea of quantum computing without control of the physical interactions between component qubits. This is highly appealing since the 'switching' of such interactions is a principal difficulty in creating real devices. It has been established that one can employ 'always on' interactions in a one-dimensional Heisenberg chain, provided that one can tune the Zeeman energies of the individual (pseudo-)spins. It is important to generalize this scheme to higher dimensional networks, since a real device would probably be of that kind. Such generalisations have been proposed, but only at the severe cost that the efficiency of qubit storage must *fall*. Here we propose the use of multi-qubit gates within such higher-dimensional arrays, finding a novel three-qubit gate that can in fact increase the efficiency beyond the linear model. Thus we are able to propose higher dimensional networks that can constitute a better embodiment of the 'always on' concept - a substantial step toward bringing this novel concept to full fruition.Comment: 20 pages in preprint format, inc. 3 figures. This version has fixed typos and printer-friendly figures, and is to appear in NJ

    Measurements and Information in Spin Foam Models

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    We present a problem relating measurements and information theory in spin foam models. In the three dimensional case of quantum gravity we can compute probabilities of spin network graphs and study the behaviour of the Shannon entropy associated to the corresponding information. We present a general definition, compute the Shannon entropy of some examples, and find some interesting inequalities.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures. Improved versio

    Entanglement Concentration Using Quantum Statistics

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    We propose an entanglement concentration scheme which uses only the effects of quantum statistics of indistinguishable particles. This establishes the fact that useful quantum information processing can be accomplished by quantum statistics alone. Due to the basis independence of statistical effects, our protocol requires less knowledge of the initial state than most entanglement concentration schemes. Moreover, no explicit controlled operation is required at any stage.Comment: 2 figure

    Robust coupling of superconducting order parameter in a mesoscale NbN-Fe-NbN epitaxial structure

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    We report an unconventional and promising route to self-assemble distributed superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (S-F-S) Josephson Junctions on single crystal [100] MgO. These structures consist of [110] epitaxial nano-plaquettes of Fe covered with superconducting NbN films of varying thickness. The S-F-S structures are characterized by strong magnetoresistance (MR) anisotropy for the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields. The stronger in-plane MR suggests decoherence of S-F-S junctions whose critical current follows a (1-T/Tc) and (1-T/Tc)1/2 dependence for T Tc and T<<Tc respectively, in accordance with the theory of supercurrent transport in such junctions.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    A Study of Some Vegetable Fibres by X-Ray Diffraction Method

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    Quasilocal energy for rotating charged black hole solutions in general relativity and string theory

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    We explore the (non)-universality of Martinez's conjecture, originally proposed for Kerr black holes, within and beyond general relativity. The conjecture states that the Brown-York quasilocal energy at the outer horizon of such a black hole reduces to twice its irreducible mass, or equivalently, to \sqrt{A} /(2\sqrt{pi}), where `A' is its area. We first consider the charged Kerr black hole. For such a spacetime, we calculate the quasilocal energy within a two-surface of constant Boyer-Lindquist radius embedded in a constant stationary-time slice. Keeping with Martinez's conjecture, at the outer horizon this energy equals the irreducible mass. The energy is positive and monotonically decreases to the ADM mass as the boundary-surface radius diverges. Next we perform an analogous calculation for the quasilocal energy for the Kerr-Sen spacetime, which corresponds to four-dimensional rotating charged black hole solutions in heterotic string theory. The behavior of this energy as a function of the boundary-surface radius is similar to the charged Kerr case. However, we show that in this case it does not approach the expression conjectured by Martinez at the horizon.Comment: 15 page

    On the Axial Lengths of Phloroglucin Dihydrate Crystals

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    Growth of [110] La2/3_{2 / 3}Sr1/3_{1 / 3}MnO3_{3} - YBa2_{2}Cu3_{3}O7_{7} heterostructures

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    YBa2_{2}Cu3_{3}O7_{7} - La2/3_{2 / 3}Sr1/3_{1 / 3}MnO3_{3} heterostructures of [110] orientation are grown to allow direct injection of spin polarized holes from the La2/3_{2 / 3}Sr1/3_{1 / 3}MnO3_{3} into the CuO2_2 superconducting planes. The magnetic response of the structure at T << Tsc_{sc} shows both diamagnetic and ferromagnetic moments with [001] direction as magnetic easy axis. While the superconducting transition temperature (Tsc_{sc}) of these structures is sharp (Δ\DeltaTsc_{sc} \simeq 2.5 K), the critical current density (Jc_c) follows a dependence of the type Jc=Jo(1TTsc)3/2J_c = J{_o}(1-\frac{T}{T_{sc}})^{3/2} with highly suppressed Jo_o (2×104\simeq 2 \times 10^4 A/cm2^2) indicating strong pair breaking effects of the ferromagnetic boundary.Comment: 12 pages five figure

    Accumulation is late and brief in preferential choice

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    Preferential choices are often explained using models within the evidence accumulation framework: value drives the drift rate at which evidence is accumulated until a threshold is reached and an option is chosen. Although rarely stated explicitly, almost all such models assume that decision makers have knowledge at the onset of the choice of all available attributes and options. In reality however, choice information is viewed piece-by-piece, and is often not completely acquired until late in the choice, if at all. Across four eye-tracking experiments, we show that whether the information was acquired early or late is irrelevant in predicting choice: all that matters is whether or not it was acquired at all. Models with potential alternative assumptions were posited and tested, such as 1) accumulation of instantaneously available information or 2) running estimates as information is acquired. These provided poor fits to the data. We are forced to conclude that participants either are clairvoyant, accumulating using information before they have looked at it, or delay accumulating evidence until very late in the choice, so late that the majority of choice time is not time in which evidence is accumulated. Thus, although the evidence accumulation framework may still be useful in measurement models, it cannot account for the details of the processes involved in decision making
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