89 research outputs found

    Clinical applications of personalized medicine: a new paradigm and challenge

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    The personalized medicine is an emergent and rapidly developing method of clinical practice that uses new technologies to provide decisions in regard to the prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. The continue evolution of technology and the developments in molecular diagnostics and genomic analysis increased the possibility of an even more understanding and interpretation of the human genome and exome, allowing a "personalized" approach to clinical care, so that the concepts of "Systems Medicine" and "System Biology" are increasingly actual. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the personalized medicine about its indications and benefits, actual clinical applications and future perspectives as well as its issues and health care implications. It was made a careful review of the scientific literature on this field that highlighted the applicability and usefulness of this new medical approach as well as the fact that personalized medicine strategy is even more increasing in numerous fields of applications

    Gene variants with suicidal risk in a sample of subjects with chronic migraine and affective temperamental dysregulation

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    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for suicide are at least partially heritable and functional polymorphisms of targeted genes have been suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon. However, other studies examining the association between specific gene variants and suicide revealed inconsistent findings. We aims to evaluate the possible association between MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants, hopelessness and suicidal risk in a sample of subjects with chronic migraine and affective temperamental dysregulation. METHODS: 56 women were genotyped for MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants. Participants were also assessed using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and the Suicidal History Self-Rating Screening Scale (SHSS). RESULTS: Patients with higher total scores on affective dysregulated temperaments are more likely to have higher BHS (11.27 +/- 5.54 vs. 5.73 +/- 3.81; t19.20 = -3.57; p = 9 indicating high levels of hopelessness. No association was found between MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants and suicidal risk as assessed by BHS and SHSS. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not sustain the association between MAO-A3, CYP1A2*1F and GNB3 gene variants and increased suicidal risk in patients with chronic migraine and affective temperamental dysregulation. Further studies investigating the gene-environment interaction or focusing on other genetic risk factors involved in suicidal behaviour are needed

    Short-term one-lung ventilation does not influence local inflammatory cytokine response after lung resection

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    Background: One-lung ventilation (OLV) is a ventilation procedure used for pulmonary resection which may results in lung injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the local inflammatory cytokine response from the dependent lung after OLV and its correlation to VT. The secondary aim was to evaluate the clinical outcome of each patient. Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients were enrolled. Ventilation was delivered in volume-controlled mode with a VT based on predicted body weight (PBW). 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and FiO20.5 were applied. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in the dependent lung before and after OLV. The levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10) and interferon (IFN-γ), were evaluated. Subgroup analysis: to analyze the VT setting during OLV, all patients were ventilated within a range of 5-10 mL/kg. Thirteen patients, classified as a conventional ventilation (CV) subgroup, received 8-10 mL/kg, while 15 patients, classified as a protective ventilation (PV) subgroup, received 5-7 mL/kg. Results: Cytokine BAL levels after surgery showed no significant increase after OLV, and no significant differences were recorded between the two subgroups. The mean duration of OLV was 64.44±21.68 minutes. No postoperative respiratory complications were recorded. The mean length of stay was for 4.00±1.41 days in the PV subgroup and 4.45±2.07 days in the CV group; no statistically significant differences were recorded between the two subgroups (P=0.511). Conclusions: Localized inflammatory cytokine response after OLV was not influenced by the use of different VT. Potentially, the application of PEEP in both ventilation strategies and the short duration of OLV could prevent postoperative complications

    Validation of a small-size pooling approach targeting hospital surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    Recent studies describing the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in pools of 5 to 32 samples reported false negative rates up to 10% for large groups, suggesting that smaller sample pools are a good compromise to increase sample processing capacity while maintaining test reliability. Since 5-sample pools were shown to efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in RT-PCR assays, we chose to test and validate this approach using a highthroughput RNA extraction and amplification platform

    Degradation rate of 5-fluorouracil in metastatic colorectal cancer. A new predictive outcome biomarker?

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    BACKGROUND: 5-FU based chemotherapy is the most common first line regimen used for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Identification of predictive markers of response to chemotherapy is a challenging approach for drug selection. The present study analyzes the predictive role of 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) and genetic polymorphisms (MTHFR, TSER, DPYD) on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR, TSER and DPYD, and the 5-FUDR of homogenous patients with mCRC were retrospectively studied. Genetic markers and the 5-FUDR were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: 133 patients affected by mCRC, treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy from 2009 to 2014, were evaluated. Patients were classified into three metabolic classes, according to normal distribution of 5-FUDR in more than 1000 patients, as previously published: poor-metabolizer (PM) with 5-FU-DR ≤ 0,85 ng/ml/106 cells/min (8 pts); normal metabolizer with 0,85 < 5-FU-DR < 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (119 pts); ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM) with 5-FU-DR ≥ 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (6 pts). PM and UM groups showed a longer PFS respect to normal metabolizer group (14.5 and 11 months respectively vs 8 months; p = 0.029). A higher G3-4 toxicity rate was observed in PM and UM, respect to normal metabolizer (50% in both PM and UM vs 18%; p = 0.019). No significant associations between genes polymorphisms and outcomes or toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: 5-FUDR seems to be significantly involved in predicting survival of patients who underwent 5-FU based CHT for mCRC. Although our findings require confirmation in large prospective studies, they reinforce the concept that individual genetic variation may allow personalized selection of chemotherapy to optimize clinical outcomes

    Predicting Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related 5-Fluorouracil Toxicity. Opportunities and Challenges of DPYD Exon Sequencing and the Role of Phenotyping Assays

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    Deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), encoded by the DPYD gene, is associated with severe toxicity induced by the anti-cancer drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). DPYD genotyping of four recommended polymorphisms is widely used to predict toxicity, yet their prediction power is limited. Increasing availability of next generation sequencing (NGS) will allow us to screen rare variants, predicting a larger fraction of DPD deficiencies. Genotype−phenotype correlations were investigated by performing DPYD exon sequencing in 94 patients assessed for DPD deficiency by the 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) assay. Association of common variants with 5-FUDR was analyzed with the SNPStats software. Functional interpretation of rare variants was performed by in-silico analysis (using the HSF system and PredictSNP) and literature review. A total of 23 rare variants and 8 common variants were detected. Among common variants, a significant association was found between homozygosity for the rs72728438 (c.1974+75A&gt;G) and decreased 5-FUDR. Haplotype analysis did not detect significant associations with 5-FUDR. Overall, in our sample cohort, NGS exon sequencing allowed us to explain 42.5% of the total DPD deficiencies. NGS sharply improves prediction of DPD deficiencies, yet a broader collection of genotype−phenotype association data is needed to enable the clinical use of sequencing data

    DRD2, DRD3, and HTR2A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Involvement in High Treatment Resistance to Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

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    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the DRD2 rs1800497, rs1799732, rs1801028, DRD3 rs6280, and HTR2A rs6314, rs7997012, and rs6311 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) correlations with resistance to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in a real-world sample of patients with treatment-resistant mental disorders. Methods: We divided 129 participants into a high treatment resistance (HTR) group (current treatment with two SGAs, or clozapine, or classic neuroleptics for a failure of previous SGAs trials) and a low treatment resistance (LTR) group (current treatment with one atypical antipsychotic). We used Next-Generation Sequencing on DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples to analyze the polymorphisms. We performed logistic regression to search for predictors of HTR membership. Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia significantly predicted the HTR membership compared to other diagnoses. Other predictors were the DRD3 rs6280 C|T (OR = 22.195) and T|T (OR = 18.47) vs. C|C, HTR2A rs7997012 A|G vs. A|A (OR = 6.859) and vs. G|G (OR = 2.879), and DRD2 rs1799732 I|I vs. D|I (OR = 12.079) genotypes. Conclusions: A diagnosis of schizophrenia and the DRD2 rs1799732, DRD3 rs6280, and HTR2A rs7997012 genotypes can predict high treatment resistance to SGAs

    Evidence-Based Considerations Exploring Relations between SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Air Pollution: Involvement of PM2.5-Mediated Up-Regulation of the Viral Receptor ACE-2

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    The COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 pandemic struck health, social and economic systems worldwide, and represents an open challenge for scientists &mdash;coping with the high inter-individual variability of COVID-19, and for policy makers &mdash;coping with the responsibility to understand environmental factors affecting its severity across different geographical areas. Air pollution has been warned of as a modifiable factor contributing to differential SARS-CoV-2 spread but the biological mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are still unknown. Air quality and COVID-19 epidemiological data from 110 Italian provinces were studied by correlation analysis, to evaluate the association between particulate matter (PM)2.5 concentrations and incidence, mortality rate and case fatality risk of COVID-19 in the period 20 February&ndash;31 March 2020. Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence encoding the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) was performed to identify consensus motifs for transcription factors mediating cellular response to pollutant insult. Positive correlations between PM2.5 levels and the incidence (r = 0.67, p &lt; 0.0001), the mortality rate (r = 0.65, p &lt; 0.0001) and the case fatality rate (r = 0.7, p &lt; 0.0001) of COVID-19 were found. The bioinformatic analysis of the ACE-2 gene identified nine putative consensus motifs for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our results confirm the supposed link between air pollution and the rate and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and support the hypothesis that pollution-induced over-expression of ACE-2 on human airways may favor SARS-CoV-2 infectivity
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