531 research outputs found

    The Italian Agreement between the Government and the Regional Authorities: National Guidelines for AAI and Institutional Context

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    Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) have developed considerably in the last half century, prompting various private and public realities dealing with AAI worldwide to work on and establish standards and best practice. However, AAI are still far from being regulated harmoniously. In this context, Italy offers a unique example at world level: here the spread of AAI has set in motion an ethical and legal reflection that led to the creation of the Italian National Reference Centre for AAI (NRC AAI) by ministerial decree in 2009 and the approval of National Guidelines for AAI in 2015. The Italian legislation on AAI is based on the One Health approach, which has been part of Italian health culture and institutions since the Renaissance. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is the core of this theme: in other words, One Health represents a multidisciplinary approach aimed at best protecting the health and well-being of all those who share our planet. In Italy, human and veterinary medicine have both been placed under the umbrella of the Ministry of Health since its establishment in 1958. The same idea of collaboration is at the heart of the Italian legislative approach to the AAI field, given the inherent multidisciplinarity of these interventions. This applies to all indications provided by the National Guidelines, for example the distinction between the various types of interventions, the animal species involved, the roles within the multidisciplinary team, and the training programs for each professional figure. In addition, the National Guidelines are intended to be amendable according to the needs arising over time from daily practice: in fact, the constant contact and dialogue between institutions and AAI professionals is another pillar of the Italian approach

    Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

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    Abstract The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1 Ă— 10 15 cm - 2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

    Validation tests of the CMS TIB/TID structures

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    Tracker Inner Barrel half-cylinders and Tracker Inner Disks of the CMS tracker have been integrated in three INFN sites. Integrated structures are submitted to an extensive set of tests whose main aim is to validate the functioning of the structures in CMS-like conditions. The tests have furthermore proven to be a great opportunity to study several aspects of the performance in detail. In this note the tests are described in some detail and an overview of the results is presented

    Charge collection and capacitance–voltage analysis in irradiated n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

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    Abstract The depletion depth of irradiated n-type silicon microstrip detectors can be inferred from both the reciprocal capacitance and from the amount of collected charge. Capacitance voltage ( C – V ) measurements at different frequencies and temperatures are being compared with the bias voltage dependence of the charge collection on an irradiated n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detector. Good agreement between the reciprocal capacitance and the median collected charge is found when the frequency of the C – V measurement is selected such that it scales with the temperature dependence of the leakage current. Measuring C – V characteristics at prescribed combinations of temperature and frequency allows then a realistic estimate of the depletion characteristics of irradiated silicon strip detectors based on C – V data alone

    The 2003 Tracker Inner Barrel Beam Test

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    Before starting the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) mass production, where the quality control tests can only be done on single components, an extensive collection of activities aiming at validating the tracker system functionality has been performed. In this framework, a final component prototype of the Inner Barrel part (TIB) of the SST has been assembled and tested in the INFN laboratories and then moved to CERN to check its behaviour in a 25~ns LHC-like particle beam. A set of preproduction single-sided silicon microstrip modules was mounted on a mechanical structure very similar to a sector of the third layer of the TIB and read out using a system functionally identical to the final one. In this note the system setup configuration is fully described and the results of the test, concerning both detector performance and system characteristics, are presented and discussed

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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