1,350 research outputs found

    Thermodynamical properties of the ICM from hydrodynamical simulations

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    Modern hydrodynamical simulations offer nowadays a powerful means to trace the evolution of the X-ray properties of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) during the cosmological history of the hierarchical build up of galaxy clusters. In this paper we review the current status of these simulations and how their predictions fare in reproducing the most recent X-ray observations of clusters. After briefly discussing the shortcomings of the self-similar model, based on assuming that gravity only drives the evolution of the ICM, we discuss how the processes of gas cooling and non-gravitational heating are expected to bring model predictions into better agreement with observational data. We then present results from the hydrodynamical simulations, performed by different groups, and how they compare with observational data. As terms of comparison, we use X-ray scaling relations between mass, luminosity, temperature and pressure, as well as the profiles of temperature and entropy. The results of this comparison can be summarised as follows: (a) simulations, which include gas cooling, star formation and supernova feedback, are generally successful in reproducing the X-ray properties of the ICM outside the core regions; (b) simulations generally fail in reproducing the observed ``cool core'' structure, in that they have serious difficulties in regulating overcooling, thereby producing steep negative central temperature profiles. This discrepancy calls for the need of introducing other physical processes, such as energy feedback from active galactic nuclei, which should compensate the radiative losses of the gas with high density, low entropy and short cooling time, which is observed to reside in the innermost regions of galaxy clusters.Comment: 26 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in Space Science Reviews, special issue "Clusters of galaxies: beyond the thermal view", Editor J.S. Kaastra, Chapter 13; work done by an international team at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI), Bern, organised by J.S. Kaastra, A.M. Bykov, S. Schindler & J.A.M. Bleeke

    The effect of AGN feedback on the halo mass function

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    [Abridged.] We investigate baryon effects on the halo mass function (HMF), with emphasis on the role played by AGN feedback. Halos are identified with both Friends-of-Friends (FoF) and Spherical Overdensity (SO) algorithms. We embed the standard SO algorithm into a memory-controlled frame program and present the {\bf P}ython spher{\bf I}c{\bf A}l {\bf O}verdensity code --- {\small PIAO}. For both FoF and SO halos, the effect of AGN feedback is that of suppressing the HMFs to a level even below that of Dark Matter simulations. The ratio between the HMFs in the AGN and in the DM simulations is ∼0.8\sim 0.8 at overdensity Δc=500\Delta_c=500, a difference that increases at higher overdensity Δc=2500\Delta_c=2500, with no significant redshift and mass dependence. A decrease of the halo masses ratio with respect to the DM case induces the decrease of the HMF in the AGN simulation. The shallower inner density profiles of halos in the AGN simulation witnesses that mass reduction is induced by the sudden displacement of gas induced by thermal AGN feedback. We provide fitting functions to describe halo mass variations at different overdensities, which can recover the HMFs with a residual random scatter <5\lt 5 per cent for halo masses larger than 1013 h−1M⊙10^{13} ~h^{-1}{\rm M_\odot}.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figures. Matches to MNRAS published version, typo corrected in the fitting functio

    The baryon fraction in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters

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    We study the baryon mass fraction in a set of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters performed using the Tree+SPH code GADGET-2. We investigate the dependence of the baryon fraction upon the radiative cooling, star formation, feedback through galactic winds, conduction and redshift. Both the cold stellar component and the hot X-ray emitting gas have narrow distributions that, at large cluster-centric distances r>R500, are nearly independent of the physics included in the simulations. Only the non-radiative runs reproduce the gas fraction inferred from observations of the inner regions (r ~ R2500) of massive clusters. When cooling is turned on, the excess star formation is mitigated by the action of galactic winds, but yet not by the amount required by observational data. The baryon fraction within a fixed overdensity increases slightly with redshift, independent of the physical processes involved in the accumulation of baryons in the cluster potential well. In runs with cooling and feedback, the increase in baryons is associated with a larger stellar mass fraction that arises at high redshift as a consequence of more efficient gas cooling. For the same reason, the gas fraction appears less concentrated at higher redshift. We discuss the possible cosmological implications of our results and find that two assumptions generally adopted, (1) mean value of Yb = fb / (Omega_b/Omega_m) not evolving with redshift, and (2) a fixed ratio between f_star and f_gas independent of radius and redshift, might not be valid. In the estimate of the cosmic matter density parameter, this implies some systematic effects of the order of Delta Omega_m/Omega_m < +0.15 for non-radiative runs and Delta Omega_m/Omega_m ~ +0.05 and < -0.05 for radiative simulations.Comment: 10 pages, to appear in MNRA

    Radiative feedback and cosmic molecular gas: the role of different radiative sources

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    We present results from multifrequency radiative hydrodynamical chemistry simulations addressing primordial star formation and related stellar feedback from various populations of stars, stellar energy distributions (SEDs) and initial mass functions. Spectra for massive stars, intermediate-mass stars and regular solar-like stars are adopted over a grid of 150 frequency bins and consistently coupled with hydrodynamics, heavy-element pollution and non-equilibrium species calculations. Powerful massive population III stars are found to be able to largely ionize H and, subsequently, He and He+^+, causing an inversion of the equation of state and a boost of the Jeans masses in the early intergalactic medium. Radiative effects on star formation rates are between a factor of a few and 1 dex, depending on the SED. Radiative processes are responsible for gas heating and photoevaporation, although emission from soft SEDs has minor impacts. These findings have implications for cosmic gas preheating, primordial direct-collapse black holes, the build-up of "cosmic fossils" such as low-mass dwarf galaxies, the role of AGNi during reionization, the early formation of extended disks and angular-momentum catastrophe.Comment: 19 pages on MNRA
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