98 research outputs found

    Quantum chaos with spin-chains in pulsed magnetic fields

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    Recently it was found that the dynamics in a Heisenberg spin-chain subjected to a sequence of periodic pulses from an external, parabolic, magnetic field can have a close correspondence with the quantum kicked rotor (QKR). The QKR is a key paradigm of quantum chaos; it has as its classical limit the well-known Standard Map. It was found that a single spin excitation could be converted into a pair of non-dispersive, counter-propagating spin coherent states equivalent to the accelerator modes of the Standard Map. Here we consider how other types of quantum chaotic systems such as a double-kicked quantum rotor or a quantum rotor with a double-well potential might be realized with spin chains; we discuss the possibilities regarding manipulation of the one-magnon spin waves.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to PTP special issue for QMC200

    Doubly excited ferromagnetic spin-chain as a pair of coupled kicked rotors

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    We show that the dynamics of a doubly-excited 1D Heisenberg ferromagnetic chain, subject to short pulses from a parabolic magnetic field may be analyzed as a pair of quantum kicked rotors. By focusing on the two-magnon dynamics in the kicked XXZ model we investigate how the anisotropy parameter - which controls the strength of the magnon-magnon interaction - changes the nature of the coupling between the two "image" coupled Kicked Rotors. We investigate quantum state transfer possibilities and show that one may control whether the spin excitations are transmitted together, or separate from each other.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures; extended appendix and corrected typo

    Entanglement and dynamics of spin-chains in periodically-pulsed magnetic fields: accelerator modes

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    We study the dynamics of a single excitation in a Heisenberg spin-chain subjected to a sequence of periodic pulses from an external, parabolic, magnetic field. We show that, for experimentally reasonable parameters, a pair of counter-propagating coherent states are ejected from the centre of the chain. We find an illuminating correspondence with the quantum time evolution of the well-known paradigm of quantum chaos, the Quantum Kicked Rotor (QKR). From this we can analyse the entanglement production and interpret the ejected coherent states as a manifestation of so-called `accelerator modes' of a classically chaotic system.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures; minor corrections, tidied presentatio

    Beyond a phenomenological description of magnetostriction

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    We use ultrafast x-ray and electron diffraction to disentangle spin-lattice coupling of granular FePt in the time domain. The reduced dimensionality of single-crystalline FePt nanoparticles leads to strong coupling of magnetic order and a highly anisotropic three-dimensional lattice motion characterized by a- and b-axis expansion and c-axis contraction. The resulting increase of the FePt lattice tetragonality, the key quantity determining the energy barrier between opposite FePt magnetization orientations, persists for tens of picoseconds. These results suggest a novel approach to laser-assisted magnetic switching in future data storage applications.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure

    Monitoring increases in fracture connectivity during hydraulic stimulations from temporal variations in shear wave splitting polarization

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    Hydraulic overpressure can induce fractures and increase permeability in a range of geological settings, including volcanological, glacial and petroleum reservoirs. Here we consider an example of induced hydraulic fracture stimulation in a tight-gas sandstone. Successful exploitation of tight-gas reservoirs requires fracture networks, either naturally occurring, or generated through hydraulic stimulation. The study of seismic anisotropy provides a means to infer properties of fracture networks, such as the dominant orientation of fracture sets and fracture compliances. Shear wave splitting from microseismic data acquired during hydraulic fracture stimulation allows us to not only estimate anisotropy and fracture properties, but also to monitor their evolution through time. Here, we analyse shear wave splitting using microseismic events recorded during a multistage hydraulic fracture stimulation in a tight-gas sandstone reservoir. A substantial rotation in the dominant fast polarization direction (Ōą) is observed between the events of stage 1 and those from later stages. Although large changes in Ōą have often been linked to stress-induced changes in crack orientation, here we argue that it can better be explained by a smaller fracture rotation coupled with an increase in the ratio of normal to tangential compliance (ZN/ZT) from 0.3 to 0.6. ZN/ZT is sensitive to elements of the internal architecture of the fracture, as well as fracture connectivity and permeability. Thus, monitoring ZN/ZT with shear wave splitting can potentially allow us to remotely detect changes in permeability caused by hydraulic stimulation in a range of geological settings

    Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study

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    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research

    Temporal allocation of foraging effort in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

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    Across an individual\u27s life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving) with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s) but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500–1600 m•h−1) and a reduction in postdive duration (111–90 s). This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs) or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (<2.9 d), effort remained steady at 55% of time diving, whereas, on long trips (>2.9 d) effort increased up to 2–3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips) between 4–5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability) working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this specie

    Crustal Azimuthal Anisotropy Beneath the Central North China Craton Revealed by Receiver Functions

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    To characterize crustal anisotropy beneath the central North China Craton (CNCC), we apply a recently developed deconvolution approach to effectively remove near-surface reverberations in the receiver functions recorded at 200 broadband seismic stations and subsequently determine the fast orientation and the magnitude of crustal azimuthal anisotropy by fitting the sinusoidal moveout of the P to S converted phases from the Moho and intracrustal discontinuities. The magnitude of crustal anisotropy is found to range from 0.06 s to 0.54√ā s, with an average of 0.25 ¬Ī 0.08√ā s. Fault-parallel anisotropy in the seismically active Zhangjiakou-Penglai Fault Zone is significant and could be related to fluid-filled fractures. Historical strong earthquakes mainly occurred in the fault zone segments with significant crustal anisotropy, suggesting that the measured crustal anisotropy is closely related to the degree of crustal deformation. The observed spatial distribution of crustal anisotropy suggests that the northwestern terminus of the fault zone probably ends at about 114¬įE. Also observed is a sharp contrast in the fast orientations between the western and eastern Yanshan Uplifts separated by the North-South Gravity Lineament. The NW-SE trending anisotropy in the western Yanshan Uplift is attributable to fossil crustal anisotropy due to lithospheric extension of the CNCC, while extensional fluid-saturated microcracks induced by regional compressive stress are responsible for the observed ENE-WSW trending anisotropy in the eastern Yanshan Uplift. Comparison of crustal anisotropy measurements and previously determined upper mantle anisotropy implies that the degree of crust-mantle coupling in the CNCC varies spatially

    Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

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    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001) in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05). Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels
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