178 research outputs found

    Static hybrid quarkonium potential with improved staggered quarks

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    We are studying the effects of light dynamical quarks on the excitation energies of a flux tube between a static quark and antiquark. We report preliminary results of an analysis of the ground state potential and the Σg′+\Sigma^{\prime+}_g and Πu\Pi_u potentials. We have measured these potentials on closely matched ensembles of gauge configurations, generated in the quenched approximation and with 2+1 flavors of Asqtad improved staggered quarks.Comment: Lattice2002(heavyquark

    Heavy Meson Description with a Screened Potential

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    We perform a quark model calculation of the bbˉb\bar{b} and ccˉc\bar{c} spectra from a screened funnel potential form suggested by unquenched lattice calculations. A connection between the lattice screening parameter and an effective gluon mass directly derived from QCD is established. Spin-spin energy splittings, leptonic widths and radiative decays are also examined providing a test for the description of the states.Comment: 17 pages, no figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Endocrinologic disorders and optic pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

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    Objective. To establish the prevalence of endocrinologic disorders in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and the relationship between these disorders and cerebral abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. Design. A prospective follow-up study. Setting. A multidisciplinary neurofibromatosis clinic. Patients. A total of 122 children diagnosed with NF1 according to diagnostic criteria set by the National Institutes of Health. Results. Central precocious puberty (CPP) was diagnosed in 3 children and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in 3 children. Optic pathway gliomas were observed in 15 children; in 9 of the 15 cases, the optic chiasm was involved. Of the 3 children with CPP, only 1 showed a chiasma glioma on magnetic resonance imaging. In 1 case with GHD, an optic chiasm glioma was detected on neuroimaging. Two of the 9 children with an optic chiasm glioma presented with CPP or GHD. Conclusions. It has been suggested that CPP in children with NF1 is found exclusively in the presence of a chiasma glioma. We conclude that chiasma glioma may not be obligatory in children with NF1 and CPP or GHD. Moreover, we report a prevalence of GHD in children with NF1 of 2.5%, which has not been established earlier

    Zero temperature string breaking in lattice quantum chromodynamics

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    The separation of a heavy quark and antiquark pair leads to the formation of a tube of flux, or "string", which should break in the presence of light quark-antiquark pairs. This expected zero-temperature phenomenon has proven elusive in simulations of lattice QCD. We study mixing between the string state and the two-meson decay channel in QCD with two flavors of dynamical sea quarks. We confirm that mixing is weak and find that it decreases at level crossing. While our study does not show direct effects of internal quark loops, our results, combined with unitarity, give clear confirmation of string breaking.Comment: 20 pages, 7 figures. With small clarifications and two additions to references. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Adjoint "quarks" on coarse anisotropic lattices: Implications for string breaking in full QCD

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    A detailed study is made of four dimensional SU(2) gauge theory with static adjoint ``quarks'' in the context of string breaking. A tadpole-improved action is used to do simulations on lattices with coarse spatial spacings asa_s, allowing the static potential to be probed at large separations at a dramatically reduced computational cost. Highly anisotropic lattices are used, with fine temporal spacings ata_t, in order to assess the behavior of the time-dependent effective potentials. The lattice spacings are determined from the potentials for quarks in the fundamental representation. Simulations of the Wilson loop in the adjoint representation are done, and the energies of magnetic and electric ``gluelumps'' (adjoint quark-gluon bound states) are calculated, which set the energy scale for string breaking. Correlators of gauge-fixed static quark propagators, without a connecting string of spatial links, are analyzed. Correlation functions of gluelump pairs are also considered; similar correlators have recently been proposed for observing string breaking in full QCD and other models. A thorough discussion of the relevance of Wilson loops over other operators for studies of string breaking is presented, using the simulation results presented here to support a number of new arguments.Comment: 22 pages, 14 figure

    Design of whey protein nanostructures for incorporation and release of nutraceutical compounds in food

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    Whey proteins are widely used as nutritional and functional ingredients in formulated foods because they are relative inexpensive, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient and possess important biological, physical and chemical functionalities. Denaturation and aggregation behavior of these proteins is of particular relevance toward manufacture of novel nanostructures with a number of potential uses. When these processes are properly engineered and controlled, whey proteins may be formed into nanohydrogels, nanofibrils or nanotubes and be used as carrier of bioactive compounds. This review intends to discuss the latest understandings of nanoscale phenomena of whey protein denaturation and aggregation that may contribute for the design of protein nanostructures. Whey protein aggregation and gelation pathways under different processing and environmental conditions such as microwave heating, high voltage and moderate electrical fields, high pressure, temperature, pH and ionic strength were critically assessed. Moreover, several potential applications of nanohydrogels, nanofibrils and nanotubes for controlled release of nutraceutical compounds (e.g. probiotics, vitamins, antioxidants and peptides) were also included. Controlling the size of protein networks at nanoscale through application of different processing and environmental conditions can open perspectives for development of nanostructures with new or improved functionalities for incorporation and release of nutraceuticals in food matrices.Oscar L. Ramos, Ricardo N. Pereira and Clara Fuci~nos gratefully acknowledge their Post-Doctoral grants (SFRH/BPD/80766/2011, SFRH/BPD/ 81887/2011, and SFRH/BPD/87910/2012, respectively) to the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal). All authors thank the FCT Strategic Project PEst-OE/EQB/LA0023/2013 and the Project “BioEnv— Biotechnology and Bioengineering for a sustainable world”, REF. NORTE07-0124-FEDER-000048, co-funded by Programa Operacional Regional do Norte (ON.2–O Novo Norte), QREN, FEDER

    Impaction bone grafting of the acetabulum at hip revision using a mix of bone chips and a biphasic porous ceramic bone graft substitute: Good outcome in 43 patients followed for a mean of 2 years

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    Background and purpose One of the greatest problems of revision hip arthroplasty is dealing with lost bone stock. Good results have been obtained with impaction grafting of allograft bone. However, there have been problems of infection, reproducibility, antigenicity, stability, availability of bone, and cost. Thus, alternatives to allograft have been sought. BoneSave is a biphasic porous ceramic specifically designed for use in impaction grafting. BoneSave is 80% tricalcium phosphate and 20% hydroxyapatite. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have yielded good results using mixtures of allograft and BoneSave, when compared with allograft alone. This study is the first reported human clinical trial of BoneSave in impaction grafting
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