462 research outputs found

    Oxidative stress and kidney dysfunction due to ischemia/reperfusion in rat: attenuation by dehydroepiandrosterone.

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    Oxidative stress and kidney dysfunction due to ischemia/reperfusion in rat: Attenuation by dehydroepiandrosterone.BackgroundThe pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) involves generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This in vivo study investigates the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a physiologic steroid with antioxidant properties, on oxidative balance and renal dysfunctions induced by monolateral I/R.MethodsNormal and DHEA-treated rats (4mg/day × 21 days, orally) were subjected to monolateral renal I/R (30 minutes/6 hours). The oxidative state was determined by measuring hydrogen peroxide level and activities of glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were also measured. Hydroxynonenal content was used to probe lipid peroxidation. Functional parameters determined were creatinine levels and Na/K-ATPase activity. Immunohistochemical and morphologic studies were also performed.ResultsA markedly pro-oxidant state was evident in the kidney of rats subjected to I/R. Both hydrogen peroxide and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide and iNOS) increased, whereas antioxidants decreased. Oxidant species induce TNF-α increase, which, in turn, produces lipoperoxidative processes, as documented by the increased hydroxynonenal (HNE) level. As final result, impaired renal functionality, hydropic degeneration, and vacuolization of proximal convolute tubules were observed in kidneys of I/R rats. DHEA pretreatment improved the parameters considered.ConclusionI/R induces oxidative stress and consequently damages the proximal convolute renal tubules. Rats supplemented with DHEA and subjected to I/R had reduced pro-oxidant state, oxidative damage, and improved renal functionality, indicating an attenuation of oxidative injury and dysfunctions mediated by I/R

    Oxygen adsorption on Au clusters and a rough Au(111) surface: The role of surface flatness, electron confinement, excess electrons, and band gap

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    It has been shown recently that while bulk gold is chemically inert, small Au clusters are catalytically active. The reasons for this activity and its dramatic dependence on cluster size are not understood. We use density functional theory to study O2 binding to Au clusters and to a Au(111) surface modified by adsorption of Au clusters on it. We find that O2 does not bind to a flat face of a planar Au cluster, even though it binds well to its edge. Moreover, O2 binds to Au clusters deposited on a Au(111) surface, even though it does not bind to Au(111). This indicates that a band gap is not an essential factor in binding O2, but surface roughness is. Adding electrons to the surface of a Au(111) slab, on which one has deposited a Au cluster, increases the binding energy of O2. However, adding electrons to a flat Ausurface has no effect on O2binding energy. These observations have a simple explanation: in clusters and in the rough surface, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is localized and its charge density sticks out in the vacuum. This facilitates charge transfer into the π* orbital of O2, which induces the molecule to bind to gold. A flat face of a cluster or a flat bulk surface tends to delocalize the HOMO, diminishing the ability of the surface to bind O2. The same statements are true for the LUMO orbital, which is occupied by the additional electron given to the system to charge the system negatively
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