30 research outputs found

    Understanding the Impact of Meteorological Spatiotemporal Variability on Distant Focusing Overpressure Risk

    Get PDF
    Since the 1950s, the amplification of blast energy from explosions has been understood to be a significant hazard to public safety at launch ranges. Historically, the risk assessment of the Distant Focusing Overpressure (DFO) hazard started with a single temperature and wind profile (e.g., a radiosonde launch) as input to acoustic 1-D ray tracing models. By analyzing rays propagation and performing ray tracing, population centers under high DFO risk can be identified. Although this method is useful, less is known about how the blast waves can be focused when the spatiotemporal variability of the input profiles are considered. In summary, this work aims to consider how realistic atmospheric boundary layer variability (e.g., turbulence, land-surface contrasts) may affect blast waves propagation and focusing and, as a result, DFO risk assessment results

    Cross-scanner and cross-protocol multi-shell diffusion MRI data harmonization: algorithms and result

    Get PDF
    Cross-scanner and cross-protocol variability of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data are known to be major obstacles in multi-site clinical studies since they limit the ability to aggregate dMRI data and derived measures. Computational algorithms that harmonize the data and minimize such variability are critical to reliably combine datasets acquired from different scanners and/or protocols, thus improving the statistical power and sensitivity of multi-site studies. Different computational approaches have been proposed to harmonize diffusion MRI data or remove scanner-specific differences. To date, these methods have mostly been developed for or evaluated on single b-value diffusion MRI data. In this work, we present the evaluation results of 19 algorithms that are developed to harmonize the cross-scanner and cross-protocol variability of multi-shell diffusion MRI using a benchmark database. The proposed algorithms rely on various signal representation approaches and computational tools, such as rotational invariant spherical harmonics, deep neural networks and hybrid biophysical and statistical approaches. The benchmark database consists of data acquired from the same subjects on two scanners with different maximum gradient strength (80 and 300 ‚ÄčmT/m) and with two protocols. We evaluated the performance of these algorithms for mapping multi-shell diffusion MRI data across scanners and across protocols using several state-of-the-art imaging measures. The results show that data harmonization algorithms can reduce the cross-scanner and cross-protocol variabilities to a similar level as scan-rescan variability using the same scanner and protocol. In particular, the LinearRISH algorithm based on adaptive linear mapping of rotational invariant spherical harmonics features yields the lowest variability for our data in predicting the fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), mean kurtosis (MK) and the rotationally invariant spherical harmonic (RISH) features. But other algorithms, such as DIAMOND, SHResNet, DIQT, CMResNet show further improvement in harmonizing the return-to-origin probability (RTOP). The performance of different approaches provides useful guidelines on data harmonization in future multi-site studies

    Muti-shell diffusion MRI harmonisation and enhancement challenge (MUSHAC): progress and results

    No full text
    We present a summary of competition results in the multi-shell diffusion MRI harmonisation and enhancement challenge (MUSHAC). MUSHAC is an open competition intended to stimulate the development of computational methods that reduce scanner- and protocol-related variabilities in multi-shell diffusion MRI data across multi-site studies. Twelve different methods from seven research groups have been tested in this challenge. The results show that cross-vendor harmonization and enhancement can be performed by using suitable computational algorithms such as deep convolutional neural networks. Moreover, parametric models for multi-shell diffusion MRI signals also provide reliable performances

    Basic measurements of radiation at station Gandhinagar (2015-07)

    Get PDF
    We present a summary of competition results in the multi-shell diffusion MRI harmonisation and enhancement challenge (MUSHAC). MUSHAC is an open competition intended to stimulate the development of computational methods that reduce scanner- and protocol-related variabilities in multi-shell diffusion MRI data across multi-site studies. Twelve different methods from seven research groups have been tested in this challenge. The results show that cross-vendor harmonization and enhancement can be performed by using suitable computational algorithms such as deep convolutional neural networks. Moreover, parametric models for multi-shell diffusion MRI signals also provide reliable performances

    Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation

    No full text
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin K antagonists are highly effective in preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but have several limitations. Apixaban is a novel oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke in a similar population in comparison with aspirin. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we compared apixaban (at a dose of 5 mg twice daily) with warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) in 18,201 patients with atrial fibrillation and at least one additional risk factor for stroke. The primary outcome was ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. The trial was designed to test for noninferiority, with key secondary objectives of testing for superiority with respect to the primary outcome and to the rates of major bleeding and death from any cause. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 1.8 years. The rate of the primary outcome was 1.27% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 1.60% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.01 for superiority). The rate of major bleeding was 2.13% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 3.09% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.80; P<0.001), and the rates of death from any cause were 3.52% and 3.94%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.99; P = 0.047). The rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.24% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 0.47% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.75; P<0.001), and the rate of ischemic or uncertain type of stroke was 0.97% per year in the apixaban group and 1.05% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.13; P = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation, apixaban was superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism, caused less bleeding, and resulted in lower mortality. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved
    corecore