292 research outputs found

    Shaping the Breast in Aesthetic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery: An Easy Three-Step Principle. Part II - Breast Reconstruction after Total Mastectomy

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    This is Part II of four parts describing the three-step principle being applied in reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. Part I explains how to analyze a problematic breast by understanding the main anatomical features of a breast and how they interact: the footprint, the conus of the breast, and the skin envelope. This part describes how one can optimize results with breast reconstructions after complete mastectomy. For both primary and secondary reconstructions, the authors explain how to analyze the mastectomized breast and the deformed chest wall, before giving step-by-step guidelines for rebuilding the entire breast with either autologous tissue or implants. The differences in shaping unilateral or bilateral breast reconstructions with autologous tissue are clarified. Regardless of timing or method of reconstruction, it is shown that by breaking down the surgical strategy into three easy (anatomical) steps, the reconstructive surgeon will be able to provide more aesthetically pleasing and reproducible results. Throughout these four parts, the three-step principle will be the red line on which to fall back to define the problem and to propose a solution

    Analytical profiling, modeling and transdermal/transmucosal characteristics of bioactive N-alkylamides

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    N-alkylamides are a group of bioactive molecules found in several plants. Extracts and formulations derived from these plants are not only used orally, but are applied on the skin and buccal mucosa as well. However, there is no specific information available about the intrinsic local pharmacokinetics of N-alkylamides after topical application, questioning the role of this mode of administration. Therefore, we investigated the transdermal and transmucosal behaviour of spilanthol, a prominent N-alkylamide, in a commercial Spilanthes extract, two mouth gels and different propylene glycol (PG)/H20 solutions

    Injectable biomaterials as minimal invasive strategy towards soft tissue regeneration-an overview

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    Soft tissue engineering has been gaining increasing interest as an approach to overcome the limitations posed by current clinical procedures such as invasiveness of the surgery, post-operative complications and volume loss. Soft tissue damage occurs either due to congenital malformation, trauma/disease or surgical resection. Through the use of autologous cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, combined with a biomaterial acting as a support, biological substitutes can be developed. A promising pathway in terms of delivery of these engineered constructs is the use of an injectable system, able to provide a minimally invasive approach. Advances have been made in the development of biocompatible biomaterials able to induce soft tissue regeneration. The present review provides an overview of fillers used in the clinic as well as a non-exhaustive overview of all injectable systems reported for soft tissue engineering. A particular focus is placed on the benefits and drawbacks of the biomaterials and the underlying polymerisation strategy. Furthermore, focus is placed on the mechanical properties of the systems
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