598 research outputs found

    Analysing improvised music through a comedic lens

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    Improvisation in modern Western performance can most commonly be found in the mediums of music and comedy. These practices have been an integral part of art performance throughout its documented history, yet there is an underrepresentation of improvisation in academia. Music and comedy academic discussion respectively privilege score-based and written media over the extemporised, and no theories have been proposed in any field to explain the effect of improvisation. However, there are three accepted theories of comedy that can be used to explain the humorous effects of improvisation in theatrical performance. These are referred to as the theories of incongruity, relief, and superiority. Viewing improv comedy through the lens of these theories demonstrates that the idiosyncratic elements inherent in the improvised nature of its performance conform with the conventions established by the aforementioned theories. As these elements are not displayed in written comedy, which the theories primarily address, the argument can be presented that improvisation as a creative approach, regardless of its medium, displays elements of humour. This argument is supported by using these theories to analyse jazz music and in recognising their relationship to jazz and their relationship to improvised comedy is very similar. This connection between improvisation in comedy and jazz goes beyond theories of comedy, and these additional similarities will be examined, before each of the primary theories is analysed in turn Within this thesis, I propose that the world of commonality between improvised music, specifically common-practice jazz, and improvised comedy, including their relationship to comedy theory, transcends the established worlds of composed music and written comedy respectively. Therefore, I will conclude that improvisation should be viewed as its own unique genre of interdisciplinary performance

    Abundances of Baade's Window Giants from Keck/HIRES Spectra: I. Stellar Parameters and [Fe/H] Values

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    We present the first results of a new abundance survey of the Milky Way bulge based on Keck/HIRES spectra of 27 K-giants in the Baade's Window (l=1l = 1, b=4b = -4) field. The spectral data used in this study are of much higher resolution and signal-to-noise than previous optical studies of Galactic bulge stars. The [Fe/H] values of our stars, which range between -1.29 and +0.51+0.51, were used to recalibrate large low resolution surveys of bulge stars. Our best value for the mean [Fe/H] of the bulge is 0.10±0.04-0.10 \pm 0.04. This mean value is similar to the mean metallicity of the local disk and indicates that there cannot be a strong metallicity gradient inside the solar circle. The metallicity distribution of stars confirms that the bulge does not suffer from the so-called ``G-dwarf'' problem. This paper also details the new abundance techniques necessary to analyze very metal-rich K-giants, including a new Fe line list and regions of low blanketing for continuum identification.Comment: Accepted for publication in January 2006 Astrophysical Journal. Long tables 3--6 withheld to save space (electronic tables in journal paper). 53 pages, 10 figures, 9 table

    Duration of the Effects of Three Static Stretching Conditions With or Without a Dynamic Warm-Up in College Age Adults

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    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the stretching duration (15, 30, 60 seconds) with or without a dynamic warm-up that resulted in the longest lasting acute effects in hamstring flexibility. Subjects. Forty subjects (17 male, 23 female) (age: 20-35 years) were selected to participate in this study using a sample of convenience from university graduate students. Methods. This study contained 7 treatment conditions in which each subject completed in random order. Three groups consisted of a 5-minute treadmill warm-up at a self-selected velocity (SSV) followed by one of three stretching durations (15, 30, or 60 sec). Three other groups consisted of only one of the three stretching conditions without the treadmill warm-up. The final group consisted of only walking for 5 min on the treadmill at SSV without receiving a static stretch. A baseline passive knee extension range of motion (ROM) was taken in supine followed by the stretching/treadmill intervention. Subsequent knee ROM measurements were taken each minute until knee ROM returned to baseline. Results. The presence of treadmill warm-up resulted in significantly greater duration of increased hamstring ROM (p≤0.0005). Within the four treadmill conditions, there was no significant difference in duration of increased hamstring ROM. There was no observed statistically significant difference among the three static stretch groups with no treadmill warm-up as well. Conclusion. The results suggest that a dynamic warm-up with or without a static stretch led to the longest duration of acute increase in hamstring ROM

    CHAMP - Chippewa Homestead Antenna & Mission Program

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    On January 28, 2021 the Michigan Aerospace Manufacturing Association (MAMA) announced the site selection for the Michigan Launch Initiative (MLI) Satellite Command and Control Communications (C3) center. The Chippewa Homestead Antenna & Mission Program (CHAMP) was selected to host, implement, and conduct the C3 functions for MLI\u27s vertical and horizontal launch capabilities. This poster presents in detail the CHAMP phased implementation strategy to support the complex mission operations needs of the next generation Hybrid Architectures and Mesh Networks

    Demonstration of the Lateral AC Skin Effect Using a Pickup Coil

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    We present a simple demonstration of the skin effect by observing the current distribution in a wide rectangular strip conductor driven at frequencies in the 0.25–5 kHz range. We measure the amplitude and phase of the current distribution as a function of the transverse position and find that they agree well with numerical simulations: The current hugs the edges of the strip conductor with a significant variation in phase across the width. The experimental setup is simple, uses standard undergraduate physics instructional laboratory equipment, and is easy to implement as a short in-class demonstration. Our study is motivated by modeling ac magnetic near fields in the vicinity of a rectangular trace on an atom chip

    Effects of lesions of the subthalamic nucleus/zona incerta area and dorsomedial striatum on attentional set-shifting in the rat

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    This work was supported by The Wellcome Trust (project Grant 051945/z/97). Andrew Blackwell was in receipt of a BBSRC Studentship.Patients with Parkinson’s disease show cognitive impairments, including difficulty in shifting attention between perceptual dimensions of complex stimuli. Inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be effective in ameliorating the motor abnormalities associated with striatal dopamine depletion, but it is possible that STN inactivation might result in additional, perhaps attentional, deficits. This study examined the effects of: dopamine depletion from the dorsomedial striatum (DMS); lesions of the STN area; and the effects of the two lesions together, on the ability to shift attentional set in the rat. In a single session, rats performed the intradimensional/extradimensional (ID/ED) test of attentional set-shifting. This comprises a series of seven, two-choice discriminations, including acquisitions of novel discriminations in which the relevant stimulus is either in the currently-attended dimension (ID) or the currently-unattended dimension (ED shift) and reversals following each acquisition stage. Bilateral lesions were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the DMS, resulting in a selective impairment in reversal learning. Large bilateral ibotenic acid lesions centred on the STN resulted in an increase in trials to criterion in the initial stages, but learning rate improved within the session. There was no evidence of a ‘cost’ of set-shifting – the ED stage was completed in fewer trials than the ID stage – and neither was there a cost of reversal learning. Strikingly, combined lesions of both regions did not resemble the effects of either lesion alone and resulted in no apparent deficits.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Changes of oxygen isotope values of soil P pools associated with changes in soil pH

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    Field data about the effect of soil pH on phosphorus (P) cycling is limited. A promising tool to study P cycling under field conditions is the 18O:16O ratio of phosphate (δ18OP). In this study we investigate whether the δ18OP can be used to elucidate the effect of soil pH on P cycling in grasslands. Soils and plants were sampled from different fertilisation and lime treatments of the Park Grass long term experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK. The soils were sequentially extracted to isolate different soil P pools, including available P and corresponding δ18OP values were determined. We did not observe changes in plant δ18OP value, but soil P δ18OP values changed, and lower δ18OP values were associated with higher soil pH values. At sites where P was not limiting, available P δ18OP increased by up to 3‰ when lime was applied. We show that the δ18OP method is a useful tool to investigate the effect of pH on soil P cycling under field conditions as it highlights that different soil processes must govern P availability as pH shifts. The next challenge is now to identify these underlying processes, enabling better management of soil P at different pH

    Age-dependent patterns of bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

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    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important livestock disease, seriously impacting cattle industries in both industrialised and pre-industrialised countries. Like TB in other mammals, infection is life long and, if undiagnosed, may progress to disease years after exposure. The risk of disease in humans is highly age-dependent, however in cattle, age-dependent risks have yet to be quantified, largely due to insufficient data and limited diagnostics. Here, we estimate age-specific reactor rates in Great Britain by combining herd-level testing data with spatial movement data from the Cattle Tracing System (CTS). Using a catalytic model, we find strong age dependencies in infection risk and that the probability of detecting infection increases with age. Between 2004 and 2009, infection incidence in cattle fluctuated around 1%. Age-specific incidence increased monotonically until 24-36 months, with cattle aged between 12 and 36 months experiencing the highest rates of infection. Beef and dairy cattle under 24 months experienced similar infection risks, however major differences occurred in older ages. The average reproductive number in cattle was greater than 1 for the years 2004-2009. These methods reveal a consistent pattern of BTB rates with age, across different population structures and testing patterns. The results provide practical insights into BTB epidemiology and control, suggesting that targeting a mass control programme at cattle between 12 and 36 months could be beneficial.EBP is funded by an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) fellowship. JLNW is supported by the Alborada Trust and the RAPIDD program of the Science & Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and the Fogarty International Center, U.S. National Institutes of Health. AJKC is supported by Defra grant no. SE-3127. TJM is supported by the BBSRC. We thank Steve Holdship and Rose Nicholson at Defra the AHVLA team for providing access to the CTS and VetNet

    Changes in CEBPB expression in circulating leukocytes following eccentric elbow-flexion exercise

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    This is the final version of the article. Available from Springer via the DOI in this record.In mouse models, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB) is necessary for M2 macrophage-mediated regeneration after muscle injury. In humans, CEBPB expression in blood was strongly associated with muscle strength. In this study we aimed to test whether CEBPB expression in blood in people is increased 2 days after exercise designed to induce muscle damage and subsequent repair. Sixteen healthy male volunteers undertook elbow flexor exercises designed to induce acute muscle micro-damage. Peripheral blood samples were collected at baseline and days 1, 2, 4 and 7 following exercise. Expression of CEBPB and related genes were analysed by qRT-PCR. Extent of muscle damage was determined by decline in maximal voluntary isometric torque and by plasma creatine kinase activity. Nine subjects had peak (day 4) creatine kinase activity exceeding 10,000 U/l. In this subgroup, CEBPB expression was elevated from baseline to 2 days post exercise (paired-samples t (1,8) = 3.72, p = 0.006). Related expression and selected cytokine changes after exercise did not reach significance. Muscle-damaging exercise in humans can be followed by induction of CEBPB transcript expression in peripheral blood. Associations between CEBPB expression in blood and muscle strength may be consistent with the CEBPB-dependent muscle repair process.Wellcome TrustNational Institute for Health Researc

    L-citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the American Physiological Society via the DOI in this record.The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of L-citrulline (CIT) and L-arginine (ARG) supplementation on nitric oxide (NO) biomarkers, pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics and exercise performance. In a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, ten healthy adult males completed moderate- and severe-intensity cycling exercise on days 6 and 7 of a 7 day supplementation period with placebo (PLA), 6 g•day(-1) of ARG and 6 g•day(-1) of CIT. Compared to PLA, plasma [ARG] was increased by a similar magnitude with ARG and CIT supplementation, but plasma [CIT] was only increased (P0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that short-term CIT, but not ARG, supplementation can improve blood pressure, VO2 kinetics and exercise performance in healthy adults
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