130 research outputs found

    Sex allocation theory reveals a hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in a parasitoid wasp

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    P.R.W. was funded by the University of Stirling, C.V.B. and S.M.G. were funded by Nuffield Research Placements and N.C., J.G. and D.M.S. were funded by NERC (NE/J024481/1).Sex allocation theory has proved to be one the most successful theories in evolutionary ecology. However, its role in more applied aspects of ecology has been limited. Here we show how sex allocation theory helps uncover an otherwise hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate the sex of their offspring in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Neonicotinoids are an economically important class of insecticides, but their deployment remains controversial, with evidence linking them to the decline of beneficial species. We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, that neonicotinoids disrupt the crucial reproductive behaviour of facultative sex allocation at sub-lethal, field-relevant doses in N. vitripennis. The quantitative predictions we can make from LMC theory show that females exposed to neonicotinoids are less able to allocate sex optimally and that this failure imposes a significant fitness cost. Our work highlights that understanding the ecological consequences of neonicotinoid deployment requires not just measures of mortality or even fecundity reduction among non-target species, but also measures that capture broader fitness costs, in this case offspring sex allocation. Our work also highlights new avenues for exploring how females obtain information when allocating sex under LMC.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    “Traces of the exotic” in Vernon Lee’s “Oke of Okehurst; Or, The Phantom Lover”

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    Okehurst – the stately home in Vernon Lee’s “Oke of Okehurst; Or, The Phantom Lover” – is the epitome of English architecture, dating back to “Norman or Saxon” times. Yet inside, the house is populated with far-flung objects and traces of the exotic: Persian rugs, majolica ornaments, and “rose-leaves and spices put into china bowls.” The house and its contents are intoxicating, and nothing is more exotic, perfumed, or exquisite than Alice, who with her husband (and cousin) William Oke are the last members of the family’s line. Okehurst also reverberates with the presences of its previous inhabitants which drive the current Okes to repeat the family’s history of madness and murder. The haunting of Okehurst is particularly interesting when considered alongside material from Lee’s archive. This paper will consider the traces of Lee’s own complex ancestry and the problems of empire and matrilineal ancestral wealth and inheritance, whilst utilising correspondence from Lee to her mother, and her partner, Mary Robinson to suggest the possible inspiration for Cotes Common and Okehurst Manor. Throughout this consideration of haunted spaces – both inside and outside – this paper will also make reference to the 1886 manuscript of “Oke of Okehurst,” which has never previously been studied

    Series: Public engagement with research. Part 3: Sharing power and building trust through partnering with communities in primary care research

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    Background : This article focuses on potential strategies to support primary care researchers in working in partnership with the public and healthcare professionals. Partnership working can potentially to improve the relevance and usefulness of research and ensure better research and health outcomes. Discussion : We describe what we mean by partnership working and the importance of reflecting on power and building trusting relationships. To share power in partnership working, it is essential to critically reflect on the multiple dimensions of power, their manifestations, and your own power. Power can influence relationships and therefore, it is essential to build trust with partners. Next, we outline how the context of primary care research and decisions about who you work with and how to work together, are vital considerations that are imbued with power. Lastly, we suggest different ways of working in partnership to address different dimensions of power. We provide examples from primary care research across Europe regarding how to recognise, tackle, and challenge, invisible, hidden and visible power. Conclusion : We conclude by proposing three calls to actions to encourage researchers working in primary care to consider the multiple dimensions of power and move towards partnership working. First is to use participatory methods to improve the inclusivity of your research. Second is to include patients and the public in decisions about the design, delivery and development of research and its outcomes. Third is to address various systemic and institutional barriers which hinder partnership working

    Promoting positive youth development in schools: A program logic analysis of Peer Support Australia

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    Peer Support Australia (PSA) is an established Australian charity that offers peer support services to schools to assist young people to experience personal and social growth through mentoring and supporting their peers. PSA also offers school and parent consultancy and training services that supplement their peer support services. This report documents the PSA history, activities and psychosocial processes and summarises the evidence for the service benefits. The PSA programs are noted to have some of the strongest evaluation evidence of any peer support program internationally. This report makes recommendations for implementation research to further understand and apply the underpinning evidence to extend the benefits provided through PSA

    Number and timing of primary cleft lip and palate repair surgeries in England: whole nation study of electronic health records before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Objective: To quantify differences in number and timing of first primary cleft lip and palate (CLP) repair procedures during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (1 April 2020 to 31 March 2021; 2020/2021) compared with the preceding year (1 April 2019 to 31 March 2020; 2019/2021)./ Design: National observational study of administrative hospital data./ Setting: National Health Service hospitals in England./ Study population: Children <5 years undergoing primary repair for an orofacial cleft Population Consensus and Surveys Classification of Interventions and Procedures-fourth revisions (OPCS-4) codes F031, F291)./ Main exposure: Procedure date (2020/2021 vs 2019/2020)./ Main outcomes: Numbers and timing (age in months) of first primary CLP procedures./ Results: 1716 CLP primary repair procedures were included in the analysis. In 2020/2021, 774 CLP procedures were carried out compared with 942 in 2019/2020, a reduction of 17.8% (95% CI 9.5% to 25.4%). The reduction varied over time in 2020/2021, with no surgeries at all during the first 2 months (April and May 2020). Compared with 2019/2020, first primary lip repair procedures performed in 2020/2021 were delayed by 1.6 months on average (95% CI 0.9 to 2.2 months). Delays in primary palate repairs were smaller on average but varied across the nine geographical regions./ Conclusion: There were significant reductions in the number and delays in timing of first primary CLP repair procedures in England during the first year of the pandemic, which may affect long-term outcomes

    Refinement Modal Logic

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    In this paper we present {\em refinement modal logic}. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only `atoms' and `back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'all' in addition to the standard modalities 'box' for each agent. The operator 'all' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, this refinement operator or refinement quantifier 'all' can be seen as quantifying over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by it. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second-order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multi-agent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be seen as a set of actions), and to dynamic epistemic logic. We further give detailed results on the complexity of satisfiability, and on succinctness

    Changes in Canadian Adolescent Well-Being since the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Prior Child Maltreatment

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    Adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, given their increased socialization needs during this developmental period. This prospective study examined the potential changes in adolescents’ well-being from before to during the pandemic, and the moderating role of a history of child maltreatment (CM), COVID-19-related distress, and gender among 1,802 adolescents (55.5% participants identified as boy, 42.2% as girl, and 1.5% as nonbinary; Mage 14.74 years). Another aim was to determine whether COVID-19-related distress mediated the relationship between CM and well-being. Results revealed that COVID-19-related distress was associated with lower well-being (i.e., higher levels of internalized and externalized behaviors, and lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction). Boys experienced a greater decrease in life satisfaction and self-esteem than girls. A history of CM had a moderation effect, with the pandemic having a lesser impact on the outcomes of adolescents with such a history. However, it was also associated with more COVID-19-related distress, which in turn was associated with lower levels of internalized and externalized behaviors, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. These unexpected results with regard to CM might indicate that the social restrictions during the pandemic could have had a relieving effect on adolescents with particular challenges associated with CM

    3D Heisenberg universality in the Van der Waals antiferromagnet NiPS3_3

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    Van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials are comprised of layers of atomically thin sheets, making them ideal platforms for studying magnetism at the two-dimensional (2D) limit. These materials are at the center of a host of novel types of experiments, however, there are notably few pathways to directly probe their magnetic structure. We report the magnetic order within a single crystal of NiPS3_3 and show it can be accessed with resonant elastic X-ray diffraction along the edge of the vdW planes in a carefully grown crystal by detecting structurally forbidden resonant magnetic X-ray scattering. We find the magnetic order parameter has a critical exponent of β0.36\beta\sim0.36, indicating that the magnetism of these vdW crystals is more adequately characterized by the three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg universality class. We verify these findings with first-principle density functional theory, Monte-Carlo simulations, and density matrix renormalization group calculations
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