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    OPTIMIZATION OF ANALYSIS OF POPULAR DOPING SUBSTANCES USING ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC) AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS) METHODS

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    Use of the prohibited and potentially dangerous substances in sports has become an actual problem for sports world. According to the list of sanctioned athletes, provided by Kazakhstan National Anti-Doping Centre. [1][3] Most frequently doped substances among them were: 1) anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) 2) diuretics 3) metabolic modulators 4) beta-blockers. We will provide gas chromatographic analysis of these substances. Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic or human-made variants of the male sex hormone testosterone. They provide several of physiological effects and the most predominant is an anabolic effect. The desire to gain muscles, lose body fat, and improve athletic performance is the most common motivation for anabolic steroid abuse. [2] AAS increases the number of satellite cells, which plays key role in muscle fiber growth by incorporation of them into preexisting fibers to maintain a constant nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. High abuse of AAS is observed among professional bodybuilders and non-professional athlete’s cohort. [4] Diuretics are misused by athletes for several reasons: 1) reduction of body weight to compete in the lower weight category, 2) to minimize fluid retention in the body caused by steroid usage, as well as the concentration of other prohibited drugs in urine, to avoid being tested positive. Loop diuretics are commonly used among our athlete's cohort. These is the type of diuretics binding to the chloride ions binding site in sodium+/potassium+/ chloride- transmembrane domain. It will reduce ability of kidney to concentrate urine and increases athletes’ diuresis. [5] Meldonium (MET-88), it is an active substance of medical product Mildronate. It is used to treat ischemic diseases of the brain and heart. Meldonium inhibits L-carnitine production and promotes its excretion. Athletes found that Meldonium increase endurance performance, improve rehabilitation process after exercise, and enhance activation of CNS function. According to a WADA study, 172 samples have tested positive for meldonium since it was declared a banned substance, spanning a variety of sports and countries. [6] First line therapy of angina pectoris and hypertension are provided by using of the beta-blockers. By binding to beta-1, beta-2 receptors it provides negative inotropic and chronotropic effect. As a result, relaxation of muscle tissue and reduction of the heart rate will occur. [7] That is why, athletes participating in archery, shooting, gymnastics, golf, darts used it to improve their steadiness, equilibrium, and deftness
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