5,455 research outputs found

    Microscopic dissipation in a cohesionless granular jet impact

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    Sufficiently fine granular systems appear to exhibit continuum properties, though the precise continuum limit obtained can be vastly different depending on the particular system. We investigate the continuum limit of an unconfined, dense granular flow. To do this we use as a test system a two-dimensional dense cohesionless granular jet impinging upon a target. We simulate this via a timestep driven hard sphere method, and apply a mean-field theoretical approach to connect the macroscopic flow with the microscopic material parameters of the grains. We observe that the flow separates into a cone with an interior cone angle determined by the conservation of momentum and the dissipation of energy. From the cone angle we extract a dimensionless quantity ABA-B that characterizes the flow. We find that this quantity depends both on whether or not a deadzone --- a stationary region near the target --- is present, and on the value of the coefficient of dynamic friction. We present a theory for the scaling of ABA-B with the coefficient of friction that suggests that dissipation is primarily a perturbative effect in this flow, rather than the source of qualitatively different behavior.Comment: 9 pages, 11 figure

    Approximately multiplicative maps from weighted semilattice algebras

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    We investigate which weighted convolution algebras ω1(S)\ell^1_\omega(S), where SS is a semilattice, are AMNM in the sense of Johnson (JLMS, 1986). We give an explicit example where this is not the case. We show that the unweighted examples are all AMNM, as are all ω1(S)\ell^1_\omega(S) where SS has either finite width or finite height. Some of these finite-width examples are isomorphic to function algebras studied by Feinstein (IJMMS, 1999). We also investigate when (ω1(S),M2)(\ell^1_\omega(S),{\bf M}_2) is an AMNM pair in the sense of Johnson (JLMS, 1988), where M2{\bf M}_2 denotes the algebra of 2-by-2 complex matrices. In particular, we obtain the following two contrasting results: (i) for many non-trivial weights on the totally ordered semilattice Nmin{\bf N}_{\min}, the pair (ω1(Nmin),M2)(\ell^1_\omega({\bf N}_{\min}),{\bf M}_2) is not AMNM; (ii) for any semilattice SS, the pair (1(S),M2)(\ell^1(S),{\bf M}_2) is AMNM. The latter result requires a detailed analysis of approximately commuting, approximately idempotent 2×22\times 2 matrices.Comment: AMS-LaTeX. v3: 31 pages, additional minor corrections to v2. Final version, to appear in J. Austral. Math. Soc. v4: small correction of mis-statement at start of Section 4 (this should also be fixed in the journal version

    Submodule Categories of Wild Representation Type

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    Let Λ\Lambda be a commutative local uniserial ring of length at least seven with radical factor ring kk. We consider the category S(Λ)S(\Lambda) of all possible embeddings of submodules of finitely generated Λ\Lambda-modules and show that S(Λ)S(\Lambda) is controlled kk-wild with a single control object IS(Λ)I\in S(\Lambda). In particular, it follows that each finite dimensional kk-algebra can be realized as a quotient \End(X)/\End(X)_I of the endomorphism ring of some object XS(Λ)X\in S(\Lambda) modulo the ideal \End(X)_I of all maps which factor through a finite direct sum of copies of II.Comment: 13 page

    Combinatorial Topology Of Multipartite Entangled States

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    With any state of a multipartite quantum system its separability polytope is associated. This is an algebro-topological object (non-trivial only for mixed states) which captures the localisation of entanglement of the state. Particular examples of separability polytopes for 3-partite systems are explicitly provided. It turns out that this characterisation of entanglement is associated with simulation of arbitrary unitary operations by 1- and 2-qubit gates. A topological description of how entanglement changes in course of such simulation is provided.Comment: 14 pages, LaTeX2e. Slightly revised version of the poster resented on the International Conference on Quantum Information, Oviedo, Spain, 13-18 July, 2002. To appear in the special issue of Journal of Modern Optic

    Landau Level Spectrum of ABA- and ABC-stacked Trilayer Graphene

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    We study the Landau level spectrum of ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. We derive analytic low energy expressions for the spectrum, the validity of which is confirmed by comparison to a \pi -band tight-binding calculation of the density of states on the honeycomb lattice. We further study the effect of a perpendicular electric field on the spectrum, where a zero-energy plateau appears for ABC stacking order, due to the opening of a gap at the Dirac point, while the ABA-stacked trilayer graphene remains metallic. We discuss our results in the context of recent electronic transport experiments. Furthermore, we argue that the expressions obtained can be useful in the analysis of future measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in trilayer graphene.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figure

    Boolean Coverings of Quantum Observable Structure: A Setting for an Abstract Differential Geometric Mechanism

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    We develop the idea of employing localization systems of Boolean coverings, associated with measurement situations, in order to comprehend structures of Quantum Observables. In this manner, Boolean domain observables constitute structure sheaves of coordinatization coefficients in the attempt to probe the Quantum world. Interpretational aspects of the proposed scheme are discussed with respect to a functorial formulation of information exchange, as well as, quantum logical considerations. Finally, the sheaf theoretical construction suggests an opearationally intuitive method to develop differential geometric concepts in the quantum regime.Comment: 25 pages, Late

    Classification of finite congruence-simple semirings with zero

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    Our main result states that a finite semiring of order >2 with zero which is not a ring is congruence-simple if and only if it is isomorphic to a `dense' subsemiring of the endomorphism semiring of a finite idempotent commutative monoid. We also investigate those subsemirings further, addressing e.g. the question of isomorphy.Comment: 16 page

    Chromatic Polynomials for Families of Strip Graphs and their Asymptotic Limits

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    We calculate the chromatic polynomials P((Gs)m,q)P((G_s)_m,q) and, from these, the asymptotic limiting functions W({Gs},q)=limnP(Gs,q)1/nW(\{G_s\},q)=\lim_{n \to \infty}P(G_s,q)^{1/n} for families of nn-vertex graphs (Gs)m(G_s)_m comprised of mm repeated subgraphs HH adjoined to an initial graph II. These calculations of W({Gs},q)W(\{G_s\},q) for infinitely long strips of varying widths yield important insights into properties of W(Λ,q)W(\Lambda,q) for two-dimensional lattices Λ\Lambda. In turn, these results connect with statistical mechanics, since W(Λ,q)W(\Lambda,q) is the ground state degeneracy of the qq-state Potts model on the lattice Λ\Lambda. For our calculations, we develop and use a generating function method, which enables us to determine both the chromatic polynomials of finite strip graphs and the resultant W({Gs},q)W(\{G_s\},q) function in the limit nn \to \infty. From this, we obtain the exact continuous locus of points B{\cal B} where W({Gs},q)W(\{G_s\},q) is nonanalytic in the complex qq plane. This locus is shown to consist of arcs which do not separate the qq plane into disconnected regions. Zeros of chromatic polynomials are computed for finite strips and compared with the exact locus of singularities B{\cal B}. We find that as the width of the infinitely long strips is increased, the arcs comprising B{\cal B} elongate and move toward each other, which enables one to understand the origin of closed regions that result for the (infinite) 2D lattice.Comment: 48 pages, Latex, 12 encapsulated postscript figures, to appear in Physica
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