76 research outputs found

    Additional file 1 of Diversification of plant SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1)-like genes and genome-wide identification and characterization of cotton SMXL gene family

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    Additional file 1: Supplementary table S1. Identification of SMXL gene family members from 21 plants. Supplementary table S2. Information of SMXL gene family in cotton (Gossypium sp.). Supplementary table S3. Amino acid sequences of motif 1-15 of GhSMXL proteins. Supplementary table S4. Information of the homologus·SMXL proteins in cotton (Gossypium sp.). Supplementary table S5. Syntenic SMXL gene pairs between allotetraploid and diploid cottons. Supplementary table S6. Analysis of network of SMXL6, 7-1, and 7-2 proteins in G.hirsutum and G.arboreum. Supplementary table S7. Information of the cotton database versions and websites used in this study. Supplementary table S8. Primer sequence information used in this study

    Additional file 2 of Diversification of plant SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1)-like genes and genome-wide identification and characterization of cotton SMXL gene family

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    Additional file 2: Fig. S1. Multi nucleotide sequence alignment of GhSMXL genes. Fig. S2. Chromosomal distributions of SMXL genes in Gossypium spp. Fig. S3. Collinearity analysis of G. barbadense (At and Dt) orthologs in the genomes G. raimondii, G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum. Fig. S4. Expression characteristics of nine GhSMXL genes in 13 tissues determined using qRT-PCR. Fig. S5. Plant heights of the GhSMAX1-1 and GhSMAX1-2 silenced plants. Fig. S6. Information of cis-acting elements of GhSMXL genes

    The chloride content in concrete specimens under the various applied current periods.

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    The chloride content in concrete specimens under the various applied current periods.</p

    Tailoring Particle Size of Mesoporous Silica Nanosystem To Antagonize Glioblastoma and Overcome Blood–Brain Barrier

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    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is the main bottleneck to prevent some macromolecular substance entering the cerebral circulation, resulting the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of glioma. Cancer nanotechnology displays potent applications in glioma therapy owing to their penetration across BBB and accumulation into the tumor core. In this study, we have tailored the particle size of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) through controlling the hydrolysis rate and polycondensation degree of reactants, and optimized the nanosystem that could effectively penetrate BBB and target the tumor tissue to achieve enhanced antiglioma efficacy. The nanoparticle was conjugated with cRGD peptide to enhance its cancer targeting effect, and then used to load antineoplastic doxorubicin. Therefore, the functionalized nanosystem (DOX@MSNs) selectively recognizes and binds to the U87 cells with higher expression level of ανβ3 integrin, sequentially enhancing the cellular uptake and inhibition to giloma cells, especially the particle size at 40 nm. This particle could rapidly enter cancer cells and was difficult to excrete outside the cells, thus leading to high drug accumulation. Furthermore, DOX@MSNs exhibited much higher selectivity and anticancer activity than free DOX and induced the glioma cells apoptosis through triggering ROS overproduction. Interestingly, DOX@MSNs at about 40 nm exhibited stronger permeability across the BBB, and could disrupt the VM-capability of glioma cells by regulating the expression of E-cadherin, FAK, and MMP-2, thus achieving satisfactory antiglioblastoma efficacy and avoiding the unwanted toxic side effects to normal brain tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that tailoring the particle size of MSNs nanosystem could be an effective strategy to antagonize glioblastoma and overcome BBB

    Chloride diffusion depths of GO added concrete under the various applied current period.

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    Chloride diffusion depths of GO added concrete under the various applied current period.</p

    Flexural strength of GO cement paste under various curing ages.

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    Flexural strength of GO cement paste under various curing ages.</p

    Dispersion technical index of GO.

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    To exploretheeffects of physical, mechanical, anti-deterioration properties of graphene oxide (GO) on cement-based cementitious materials, GO sheet dispersions areprepared by the improved Hummers method and ultrasonic dispersion method. The influence of theGO content on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement paste is investigated, and the penetration process of chloride ions in graphene oxide concrete is discussed by the electric accelerated erosion method. Combined with the rapid freeze-thaw test, the deterioration of graphene oxide concrete ismethodically analyzed. Theobtained results reveal that an appropriate amount of GO improves both the compressive and flexural strengths of cement pastev. In the chloride environment, the chloride diffusion coefficient of 0.03% GO concrete is 18.75% less than that of ordinary concrete.Under the action of freeze-thaw cycles, with the increase of salt freezing times, the deterioration mode of GO concrete is a combination of mortar shedding, micro-crack expansion, denudation, and block shedding; The stress-strain curve of the specimen tends to be flat with the growth of salt freezing times. The peak stress gradually lessens, the peak strain gradually grows, and the elastic modulus remarkably reduces. Compared with ordinary cement paste, theGO is capable of promoting the growth of cement paste hydration crystals, changing the size and shape of crystals, and realizingthe regulation of cement paste microstructure. Incorporating an appropriate amount of theGO could promote the cement hydration process and enhance the chemical water-binding amount in the cement paste. The optimal GO content is reported to be 0.03% of the cement mass.</div

    Stress-strain relationship of concrete under freeze-thaw cycles.

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    Stress-strain relationship of concrete under freeze-thaw cycles.</p

    Microstructure of specimens after 28 days curing.

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    To exploretheeffects of physical, mechanical, anti-deterioration properties of graphene oxide (GO) on cement-based cementitious materials, GO sheet dispersions areprepared by the improved Hummers method and ultrasonic dispersion method. The influence of theGO content on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement paste is investigated, and the penetration process of chloride ions in graphene oxide concrete is discussed by the electric accelerated erosion method. Combined with the rapid freeze-thaw test, the deterioration of graphene oxide concrete ismethodically analyzed. Theobtained results reveal that an appropriate amount of GO improves both the compressive and flexural strengths of cement pastev. In the chloride environment, the chloride diffusion coefficient of 0.03% GO concrete is 18.75% less than that of ordinary concrete.Under the action of freeze-thaw cycles, with the increase of salt freezing times, the deterioration mode of GO concrete is a combination of mortar shedding, micro-crack expansion, denudation, and block shedding; The stress-strain curve of the specimen tends to be flat with the growth of salt freezing times. The peak stress gradually lessens, the peak strain gradually grows, and the elastic modulus remarkably reduces. Compared with ordinary cement paste, theGO is capable of promoting the growth of cement paste hydration crystals, changing the size and shape of crystals, and realizingthe regulation of cement paste microstructure. Incorporating an appropriate amount of theGO could promote the cement hydration process and enhance the chemical water-binding amount in the cement paste. The optimal GO content is reported to be 0.03% of the cement mass.</div

    Controlled synthesis and size effects of multifunctional mesoporous silica nanosystem for precise cancer therapy

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    <p>Nanomaterials-based drug delivery systems display potent applications in cancer therapy, owing to the enhanced permeability and retention effect and diversified chemical modification. In this study, we have tailored and synthesized different sized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) through reactant control to investigate the relevancy of nanoparticle size toward anticancer efficacy and suppressing cancer multidrug resistance. The different sized MSNs loaded with anticancer ruthenium complex (RuPOP) and conjugated with folate acid (FA) to enhance the selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The nanosystem (Ru@MSNs) can specifically recognize HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, thus enhance accumulation and selective cellular uptake. The smaller sized (20 nm) Ru@MSNs exhibit higher anticancer activity against HepG2 cells, while the larger sized (80 nm) Ru@MSNs exhibit higher inhibitory effect against DOX-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells (R-HepG2). Moreover, Ru@MSNs induced ROS overproduction in cancer cells, leading to DNA damage and p53 phosphorylation, consequently promoting cancer cells apoptosis. Ru@MSNs (80 nm) also inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 expression in R-HepG2 cells to prevent drug efflux, thus overcome multidrug resistance. Ru@MSNs also inhibited tumor growth <i>in vivo</i> without obvious toxicity in major organs of tumor-bearing nude mice. Taken together, these results verify the size effects of MSNs nanosystem for precise cancer therapy.</p
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