227 research outputs found

    Surgery on breast cancer in pregnancy

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    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as breast cancer develops either during or within 1 year after pregnancy, it is a rare disease arising in 1:3,000 to 1:10,000 pregnant women. Prognosis of this tumor is influenced by local or systemic treatment, which might be conditioned by gestational age and limited by the concern on potential adverse impact on fetus. The aim of this literature review is to analyze the main topics regarding surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with breast cancer in pregnancy: anesthesia and maternal-fetal monitoring, type of breast surgery, immediate breast reconstruction after radical surgery and management of the axilla. Some important topics remain controversial since the relative rarity of PABC precludes the feasibility of large studies leading to a lack of literature data. Multi-institutional collaboration is warranted to collect women with PABC, in order to best define surgical treatment in view of associated maternal and fetal risks

    Current evidence of the oncological benefit-risk profile of hormone replacement therapy

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    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) remains the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms and has been shown to prevent bone loss and fracture. The progestogen is added to provide endometrial protection in women with an intact uterus. After the publication of the initial WHI (Women’s Health Initiative) results in 2002 reporting an overall increased risk of breast cancer, many women discontinued HRT. Despite the re-analysis of the results by subgroups of patients and updates with extended follow-up, much controversy remains, which we will analyze later in the text. Different types of estrogen or progestogen, as well as different formulations, doses, and durations, may play a role in HRT’s effects on breast tissue. Evidence states that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), compared to estro-progestin therapy, shows a better profile risk (HR 0.79, CI 0.65–0.97) and that, among different type of progestins, those structurally related to testosterone show a higher risk (RR 3.35, CI 1.07–10.4). Chronic unopposed endometrial exposure to estrogen increases the risk of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer, whereas the association with progestins, especially in continuous combined regimen, seems to reduce the risk (RR 0.71, CI 0.56–0.90). HRT was also associated with a protective effect on colon cancer risk (HR 0.61, CI 0.42–0.87). Data about ovarian and cervical cancer are still controversial

    Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in breast cancer survivors (BCS) is still an unmet medical need: results of an Italian Delphi Panel

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    Abstract: Purpose: VVA is a common disease, with approximately 50% of all postmenopausal women having related symptoms. VVA has a significant impact on the personal and sexual lives and on many aspects of women\u2019s self-esteem and emotional well-being. It is particularly frequent and severe in patients treated for BC, where it originates significant economic and social costs. Given the lack of published evidence on this subject, a Delphi Panel was carried out to evaluate:The epidemiology of VVA and of its risk-factors/comorbidities in ItalyThe present standard of care and unmet medical needsThe comparison between recent US epidemiological data and the Italian situationThe health resources used in VVA BC The burden of illnessDespite the considerable negative impact on quality of life, a disparity between the high prevalence of this condition and the infrequent clinical diagnosis is documented in medical practice and in surveys. This inaccuracy is thought to be primarily a consequence of patients\u2019 unwillingness and/or reluctance to report symptoms in the clinical setting and of health-care professional\u2019s difficulty in approaching this sensitive topic during routine consultations. Methods: A Delphi Panel methodology was used: a first round of written questionnaires, followed by a plenary meeting with a facilitator and by two additional rounds of telephone interviews. Results: The prevalence of the condition in Italy can be estimated in 115,000 cases out of 380,000 BC survivors. The Panel confirmed that the epidemiological findings of a recent pharmacoeconomic analysis of a US claims database can be applied to Italian patient population. The Panel confirmed also an estimate of 4.25 additional cases/100/yr of UTI (urinary tract infection) in VVA BC patients (vs. a non-VVA-matched population), of 3.68 additional cases of vulvovaginitis, of 6.97 cases of climacteric symptoms, and of 3.64 cases of bone and joint disorders. As far as the resource use is concerned, in the VVA BC populations, 33.4 additional gynecological visits/100/year can be expected, along with 22.8 additional cancer screenings, 7.07 additional outpatient visits and 5.04 screenings for HPV. Conclusions: Even in Italy, a diagnosis of VVA, especially in a BC population, is associated with a relevant increase in the burden of illness and social costs, compared to a control population matched for age without VVA. This is due essentially to an increase in comorbidities and resource utilization with the consequence that an adequate treatment could reduce the impact of the condition

    Vasomotor symptoms in menopause: a biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk and other chronic diseases?

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    Menopausal disorders may include shorter-term symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms, VMS) and longer-term chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, and cognitive impairment. Initially, no clear link between the shorter-term symptoms and longer-term chronic conditions was evident and these disorders seemed to occur independently from each other. However, there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that VMS may be a biomarker for chronic disease. In this review, the association between VMS and a range of chronic postmenopausal conditions including CVD, osteoporosis, and cognitive decline is discussed. Prevention of CVD in women, as for men, should be started early, and effective management of chronic disease in postmenopausal women has to start with the awareness that VMS during menopause are harbingers of things to come and should be treated accordingly
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