34 research outputs found

    Prevalence study of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships

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    BACKGROUND: In the last years, international traffic volume has significantly increased, raising the risk for acquisition of infectious diseases. Among travel-associated infections, increased incidence of legionellosis has been reported among travellers. Aim of our study was: to describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships; to compare the levels of contamination with those indicated by the Italian ministerial guidelines for control and prevention of legionellosis, in order to assess health risks and to adopt control measures. METHOD: A prevalence study was carried out on 9 ships docked at the seaports of northern Sardinia in 2004. Water samples were collected from critical sites: passenger cabins, crew cabins, kitchens, coffee bars, rooms of the central air conditioning system. It was performed a qualitative and quantitative identification of Legionella spp. and a chemical, physical and bacteriological analysis of water samples. RESULTS: Forty-two percent (38/90) water samples were contaminated by Legionella spp.. Positive samples were mainly drawn from showers (24/44), washbasins (10/22). L. pneumophila was isolated in 42/44 samples (95.5%), followed by L. micdadei (4.5%). Strains were identified as L. pneumophila serogroup 6 (45.2%; 19 samples), 2–14 (42.9%), 5 (7.1%) and 3 (4.8%). Legionella spp. load was high; 77.8% of the water samples contained > 10(4 )CFU/L. Low residual free chlorine concentration (0–0,2 mg/L) was associated to a contamination of the 50% of the water samples. CONCLUSION: Legionella is an ubiquitous bacterium that could create problems for public health. We identified Legionella spp. in 6/7 ferries. Microbial load was predominantly high (> 10(4 )CFU/L or ranging from 10(3 )to 10(4 )CFU/L). It is matter of concern when passengers are subjects at risk because of Legionella spp. is an opportunist that can survive in freshwater systems; high bacterial load might be an important variable related to disease's occurrence. High level of contamination required disinfecting measures, but does not lead to a definitive solution to the problem. Therefore, it is important to identify a person responsible for health safety in order to control the risk from exposure and to apply preventive measures, according to European and Italian guidelines

    Efficacy of a “Rescue” Ciprofloxacin-Based Regimen for Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection after Treatment Failures

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    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a ciprofloxacin-based regimen for H. pylori eradication failures as an alternative to bismuth based quadruple therapy. Methods. Design: prospective single-center study. Patients in whom a first eradication trial with omeprazole/esomeprazole, clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or tinidazole/metronidazole had failed were included. H. pylori status: established by histology, rapide urease test and polymerase chain reaction. Intervention: esomeprazole 20 mg, ciprofloxacin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg, administered together before breakfast and dinner for 10 days. Susceptibility testing was performed by the Epsilometer test. Ciprofloxacin resistance was defined as a MIC of ≥1 μg/mL. Eradication was established by a negative 13C-UBT and 4–6 weeks post-therapy. Efficacy and side effects were determined. Results. 34 patients were enrolled, 32 completed the study. Compliance was excellent (100%). Side effects were mild. Ciprofloxacin-based therapy cured 65% (22/34) of patients by intention to treat and 69% (22/32) per protocol analysis. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance was 8%. Conclusions. The effectiveness of ciprofloxacin-based therapy was greatly reduced despite the high prevalence of ciprofloxacin sensitive H. pylori strains. Bismuth based quadruple therapy still remain the best choice as a “rescue” regimen in our region

    Antimicrobial activities of essential oils against common hospital Fungi species

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    Introduction: In hospitals and other healthcare settings the presence of airborne and sedimented fungi is an extrinsic risk factor for opportunistic infections involving both immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised persons. In hospitalized patients, it is estimated that 9% of hospital-acquired infections are caused by fungi. Lethality rate varies from 40% to 100% depending on the immunosuppression degree of stakeholders. To prevent healthcare-associated infections, the control of environmental fungal contamination through use of sanitizing/disinfecting practices is basic. However, the widespread use of common disinfectants could promote the growth of antibiotic-resistant superbugs and cause environmental harm. These aspects stimulated the search of new antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Mentha insularis Req., Mentha pulegium L., Mentha requienii Bentham, Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv), Rosmarinus officinalis L. var. albiflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis L. var. lavandulescens, and Ocotea puchury major Mart. against fungi species frequently found in hospitals and potentially responsible for opportunistic mycoses. Methods: The essential oils’ antifungal activity was carried out by agar disc diffusion technique. Results: All tested essential oils are effective, though to a different degree, against both molds that yeasts assessed. The major antifungal activity was showed by Mentha oils. Particularly, Mentha requienii and Mentha insularis oils were active until 1:8 dilution against Rhodotorula spp. and 1:16 dilution against mixed molds, while M. pulegium was strongly active until 1:2 against both fungi. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, few or no data are available in literature on the activity of essential oils against hospital environmental isolates of fungi. Results suggest their potential application in sanitation procedures of the hospital, and in general, of the “care settings”

    Charged-particle distributions at low transverse momentum in s=13\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV pppp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

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    Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-quark pair production in the lepton-plus-jets final state in pp collision data at s=8TeV\sqrt{s}=8\,\mathrm TeV{} with the ATLAS detector