49 research outputs found

    An ensemble-based approach to climate reconstructions

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    Data assimilation is a promising approach to obtain climate reconstructions that are both consistent with observations of the past and with our understanding of the physics of the climate system as represented in the climate model used. Here, we investigate the use of ensemble square root filtering (EnSRF) – a technique used in weather forecasting – for climate reconstructions. We constrain an ensemble of 29 simulations from an atmosphere-only general circulation model (GCM) with 37 pseudo-proxy temperature time series. Assimilating spatially sparse information with low temporal resolution (semi-annual) improves the representation of not only temperature, but also other surface properties, such as precipitation and even upper air features such as the intensity of the northern stratospheric polar vortex or the strength of the northern subtropical jet. Given the sparsity of the assimilated information and the limited size of the ensemble used, a localisation procedure is crucial to reduce "overcorrection" of climate variables far away from the assimilated information

    DADA: data assimilation for the detection and attribution of weather and climate-related events

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    A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay‐coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay‐coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time step. Numerical experiments with a low‐order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an unoptimized formulation of the delay‐nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay‐coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal‐to‐decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit the use of more sophisticated data assimilation procedures

    Comparison of various climate change projections of eastern Australian rainfall

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    The Australian eastern seaboard is a distinct climate entity from the interior of the continent, with different climatic influences on each side of the Great Dividing Range. Therefore, it is plausible that downscaling of global climate models could reveal meaningful regional detail, or ‘added value’, in the climate change signal of mean rainfall change in eastern Australia un-der future scenarios. However, because downscaling is typically done using a limited set of global climate models and downscaling methods, the results from a downscaling study may not represent the range of uncertainty in plausible projected change for a region suggested by the ensemble of host global climate models. A complete and unbiased representation of the plausible changes in the climate is essential in producing climate projections useful for future planning. As part of this aim it is important to quantify any differences in the change signal between global climate models and downscaling, and understand the cause of these differ-ences in terms of plausible added regional detail in the climate change signal, the impact of sub-sampling global climate models and the effect of the downscaling models themselves. Here we examine rainfall projections in eastern Australia under a high emissions scenario by late in the century from ensembles of global climate models, two dynamical downscaling models and one statistical downscaling model. We find no cases where all three downscaling methods show the same clear regional spatial detail in the change signal that is distinct from the host models. However, some downscaled projections suggest that the eastern seaboard could see little change in spring rainfall, in contrast to the substantial rainfall decrease inland. The change signal in the downscaled outputs is broadly similar at the large scale in the various model outputs, with a few notable exceptions. For example, the model median from dynamical downscaling projects a rainfall increase over the entirety of eastern Australia in autumn that is greater than the global models. Also, there are some instances where a downscaling method produces changes outside the range of host models over eastern Australia as a whole, thus ex-panding the projected range of uncertainty. Results are particularly uncertain for summer, where no two downscaling studies clearly agree. There are also some confounding factors from the model configuration used in downscaling, where the particular zones used for statis-tical models and the model components used in dynamical models have an influence on results and produce additional uncertainty