77 research outputs found

### Classes of representable disjoint NP-pairs

For a propositional proof system P we introduce the complexity class of all disjoint -pairs for which the disjointness of the pair is efficiently provable in the proof system P. We exhibit structural properties of proof systems which make canonical -pairs associated with these proof systems hard or complete for . Moreover, we demonstrate that non-equivalent proof systems can have equivalent canonical pairs and that depending on the properties of the proof systems different scenarios for and the reductions between the canonical pairs exist

### Tuples of disjoint NP-sets

Disjoint NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -pairs are a well studied complexity-theoretic concept with important applications in cryptography and propositional proof complexity. In this paper we introduce a natural generalization of the notion of disjoint NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -pairs to disjoint k-tuples of NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -sets for k≥2. We define subclasses of the class of all disjoint k-tuples of NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -sets. These subclasses are associated with a propositional proof system and possess complete tuples which are defined from the proof system. In our main result we show that complete disjoint NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -pairs exist if and only if complete disjoint k-tuples of NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -sets exist for all k≥2. Further, this is equivalent to the existence of a propositional proof system in which the disjointness of all k-tuples is shortly provable. We also show that a strengthening of this conditions characterizes the existence of optimal proof systems

### On the existence of complete disjoint NP-pairs

Disjoint NP-pairs are an interesting model of computation with important applications in cryptography and proof complexity. The question whether there exists a complete disjoint NP-pair was posed by Razborov in 1994 and is one of the most important problems in the field. In this paper we prove that there exists a many-one hard disjoint NP-pair which is computed with access to a very weak oracle (a tally NP-oracle). In addition, we exhibit candidates for complete NP-pairs and apply our results to a recent line of research on the construction of hard tautologies from pseudorandom generators

### Tuples of disjoint NP-sets

Disjoint NP-pairs are a well studied complexity theoretic concept with important applications in cryptography and propositional proof complexity. In this paper we introduce a natural generalization of the notion of disjoint NP-pairs to disjoint k-tuples of NP-sets for k ≥ 2. We define subclasses of the class of all disjoint k-tuples of NP-sets. These subclasses are associated with a propositional proof system and possess complete tuples which are defined from the proof system. In our main result we show that complete disjoint NP-pairs exist if and only if complete disjoint k-tuples of NP-sets exist for all k ≥ 2. Further, this is equivalent to the existence of a propositional proof system in which the disjointness of all k-tuples is shortly provable. We also show that a strengthening of this conditions characterizes the existence of optimal proof systems

### Different Approaches to Proof Systems

The classical approach to proof complexity perceives proof systems as deterministic, uniform, surjective, polynomial-time computable functions that map strings to (propositional) tautologies. This approach has been intensively studied since the late 70’s and a lot of progress has been made. During the last years research was started investigating alternative notions of proof systems. There are interesting results stemming from dropping the uniformity requirement, allowing oracle access, using quantum computations, or employing probabilism. These lead to different notions of proof systems for which we survey recent results in this paper

### Does Advice Help to Prove Propositional Tautologies?

One of the starting points of propositional proof complexity is the seminal paper by Cook and Reckhow [6], where they defined propositional proof systems as poly-time computable functions which have all propositional tautologies as their range. Motivated by provability consequences in bounded arithmetic, Cook and Krajíček [5] have recently started the investigation of proof systems which are computed by poly-time functions using advice. While this yields a more powerful model, it is also less directly applicable in practice. In this note we investigate the question whether the usage of advice in propositional proof systems can be simplified or even eliminated. While in principle, the advice can be very complex, we show that proof systems with logarithmic advice are also computable in poly-time with access to a sparse NP-oracle. In addition, we show that if advice is ”not very helpful” for proving tautologies, then there exists an optimal propositional proof system without advice. In our main result, we prove that advice can be transferred from the proof to the formula, leading to an easier computational model. We obtain this result by employing a recent technique by Buhrman and Hitchcock [4]

### The Deduction Theorem for Strong Propositional Proof Systems

This paper focuses on the deduction theorem for propositional logic. We define and investigate different deduction properties and show that the presence of these deduction properties for strong proof systems is powerful enough to characterize the existence of optimal and even polynomially bounded proof systems. We also exhibit a similar, but apparently weaker condition that implies the existence of complete disjoint NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -pairs. In particular, this yields a sufficient condition for the completeness of the canonical pair of Frege systems and provides a general framework for the search for complete NPUnknown control sequence '\mathsf' -pairs

### Understanding Gentzen and Frege Systems for QBF

Recently Beyersdorff, Bonacina, and Chew [10] introduced a natural class of Frege systems for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF) and showed strong lower bounds for restricted versions of these systems. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the new extended Frege system from [10], denoted EF + ∀red, which is a natural extension of classical extended Frege EF. Our main results are the following: Firstly, we prove that the standard Gentzen-style system G*1 p-simulates EF + ∀red and that G*1 is strictly stronger under standard complexity-theoretic hardness assumptions.
Secondly, we show a correspondence of EF + ∀red to bounded arithmetic: EF + ∀red can be seen as the non-uniform propositional version of intuitionistic S12. Specifically, intuitionistic S12 proofs of arbitrary statements in prenex form translate to polynomial-size EF + ∀red proofs, and EF + ∀red is in a sense the weakest system with this property. Finally, we show that unconditional lower bounds for EF + ∀red would imply either a major breakthrough in circuit complexity or in classical proof complexity, and in fact the converse implications hold as well. Therefore, the system EF + ∀red naturally unites the central problems from circuit and proof complexity.
Technically, our results rest on a formalised strategy extraction theorem for EF + ∀red akin to witnessing in intuitionistic S12 and a normal form for EF + ∀red proofs

### Representable Disjoint NP-Pairs

We investigate the class of disjoint NP-pairs under different reductions. The structure of this class is intimately linked to the simulation order of propositional proof systems, and we make use of the relationship between propositional proof systems and theories of bounded arithmetic as the main tool of our analysis. Specifically we exhibit a pair which is complete under strong reductions for all disjoint NP-pairs representable in a theory. We use these pairs to explain the simulation order of NP-pairs under these reductions. As corollaries we also get simplified proofs of results obtained earlier in [3] and [5]

### Genuine Lower Bounds for QBF Expansion

We propose the first general technique for proving genuine lower bounds in expansion-based QBF proof systems. We present the technique in a framework centred on natural properties of winning strategies in the 'evaluation game' interpretation of QBF semantics. As applications, we prove an exponential proof-size lower bound for a whole class of formula families, and demonstrate the power of our approach over existing methods by providing alternative short proofs of two known hardness results. We also use our technique to deduce a result with manifest practical import: in the absence of propositional hardness, formulas separating the two major QBF expansion systems must have unbounded quantifier alternations

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