201 research outputs found

    A Self-initializing Eyebrow Tracker for Binary Switch Emulation

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    We designed the Eyebrow-Clicker, a camera-based human computer interface system that implements a new form of binary switch. When the user raises his or her eyebrows, the binary switch is activated and a selection command is issued. The Eyebrow-Clicker thus replaces the "click" functionality of a mouse. The system initializes itself by detecting the user's eyes and eyebrows, tracks these features at frame rate, and recovers in the event of errors. The initialization uses the natural blinking of the human eye to select suitable templates for tracking. Once execution has begun, a user therefore never has to restart the program or even touch the computer. In our experiments with human-computer interaction software, the system successfully determined 93% of the time when a user raised his eyebrows.Office of Naval Research; National Science Foundation (IIS-0093367

    SAVOIAS: A Diverse, Multi-Category Visual Complexity Dataset

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    Visual complexity identifies the level of intricacy and details in an image or the level of difficulty to describe the image. It is an important concept in a variety of areas such as cognitive psychology, computer vision and visualization, and advertisement. Yet, efforts to create large, downloadable image datasets with diverse content and unbiased groundtruthing are lacking. In this work, we introduce Savoias, a visual complexity dataset that compromises of more than 1,400 images from seven image categories relevant to the above research areas, namely Scenes, Advertisements, Visualization and infographics, Objects, Interior design, Art, and Suprematism. The images in each category portray diverse characteristics including various low-level and high-level features, objects, backgrounds, textures and patterns, text, and graphics. The ground truth for Savoias is obtained by crowdsourcing more than 37,000 pairwise comparisons of images using the forced-choice methodology and with more than 1,600 contributors. The resulting relative scores are then converted to absolute visual complexity scores using the Bradley-Terry method and matrix completion. When applying five state-of-the-art algorithms to analyze the visual complexity of the images in the Savoias dataset, we found that the scores obtained from these baseline tools only correlate well with crowdsourced labels for abstract patterns in the Suprematism category (Pearson correlation r=0.84). For the other categories, in particular, the objects and advertisement categories, low correlation coefficients were revealed (r=0.3 and 0.56, respectively). These findings suggest that (1) state-of-the-art approaches are mostly insufficient and (2) Savoias enables category-specific method development, which is likely to improve the impact of visual complexity analysis on specific application areas, including computer vision.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, 4 table

    SymbolDesign: A User-centered Method to Design Pen-based Interfaces and Extend the Functionality of Pointer Input Devices

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    A method called "SymbolDesign" is proposed that can be used to design user-centered interfaces for pen-based input devices. It can also extend the functionality of pointer input devices such as the traditional computer mouse or the Camera Mouse, a camera-based computer interface. Users can create their own interfaces by choosing single-stroke movement patterns that are convenient to draw with the selected input device and by mapping them to a desired set of commands. A pattern could be the trace of a moving finger detected with the Camera Mouse or a symbol drawn with an optical pen. The core of the SymbolDesign system is a dynamically created classifier, in the current implementation an artificial neural network. The architecture of the neural network automatically adjusts according to the complexity of the classification task. In experiments, subjects used the SymbolDesign method to design and test the interfaces they created, for example, to browse the web. The experiments demonstrated good recognition accuracy and responsiveness of the user interfaces. The method provided an easily-designed and easily-used computer input mechanism for people without physical limitations, and, with some modifications, has the potential to become a computer access tool for people with severe paralysis.National Science Foundation (IIS-0093367, IIS-0308213, IIS-0329009, EIA-0202067

    A Customizable Camera-based Human Computer Interaction System Allowing People With Disabilities Autonomous Hands Free Navigation of Multiple Computing Task

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    Many people suffer from conditions that lead to deterioration of motor control and makes access to the computer using traditional input devices difficult. In particular, they may loose control of hand movement to the extent that the standard mouse cannot be used as a pointing device. Most current alternatives use markers or specialized hardware to track and translate a user's movement to pointer movement. These approaches may be perceived as intrusive, for example, wearable devices. Camera-based assistive systems that use visual tracking of features on the user's body often require cumbersome manual adjustment. This paper introduces an enhanced computer vision based strategy where features, for example on a user's face, viewed through an inexpensive USB camera, are tracked and translated to pointer movement. The main contributions of this paper are (1) enhancing a video based interface with a mechanism for mapping feature movement to pointer movement, which allows users to navigate to all areas of the screen even with very limited physical movement, and (2) providing a customizable, hierarchical navigation framework for human computer interaction (HCI). This framework provides effective use of the vision-based interface system for accessing multiple applications in an autonomous setting. Experiments with several users show the effectiveness of the mapping strategy and its usage within the application framework as a practical tool for desktop users with disabilities.National Science Foundation (IIS-0093367, IIS-0329009, 0202067

    Facial Feature Tracking and Occlusion Recovery in American Sign Language

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    Facial features play an important role in expressing grammatical information in signed languages, including American Sign Language(ASL). Gestures such as raising or furrowing the eyebrows are key indicators of constructions such as yes-no questions. Periodic head movements (nods and shakes) are also an essential part of the expression of syntactic information, such as negation (associated with a side-to-side headshake). Therefore, identification of these facial gestures is essential to sign language recognition. One problem with detection of such grammatical indicators is occlusion recovery. If the signer's hand blocks his/her eyebrows during production of a sign, it becomes difficult to track the eyebrows. We have developed a system to detect such grammatical markers in ASL that recovers promptly from occlusion. Our system detects and tracks evolving templates of facial features, which are based on an anthropometric face model, and interprets the geometric relationships of these templates to identify grammatical markers. It was tested on a variety of ASL sentences signed by various Deaf native signers and detected facial gestures used to express grammatical information, such as raised and furrowed eyebrows as well as headshakes.National Science Foundation (IIS-0329009, IIS-0093367, IIS-9912573, EIA-0202067, EIA-9809340

    Integrated Chest Image Analysis System "BU-MIA"

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    We introduce "BU-MIA," a Medical Image Analysis system that integrates various advanced chest image analysis methods for detection, estimation, segmentation, and registration. BU-MIA evaluates repeated computed tomography (CT) scans of the same patient to facilitate identification and evaluation of pulmonary nodules for interval growth. It provides a user-friendly graphical user interface with a number of interaction tools for development, evaluation, and validation of chest image analysis methods. The structures that BU-MIA processes include the thorax, lungs, and trachea, pulmonary structures, such as lobes, fissures, nodules, and vessels, and bones, such as sternum, vertebrae, and ribs

    Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images Using Simulated Annealing

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    A fast simulated annealing algorithm is developed for automatic object recognition. The normalized correlation coefficient is used as a measure of the match between a hypothesized object and an image. Templates are generated on-line during the search by transforming model images. Simulated annealing reduces the search time by orders of magnitude with respect to an exhaustive search. The algorithm is applied to the problem of how landmarks, for example, traffic signs, can be recognized by an autonomous vehicle or a navigating robot. The algorithm works well in noisy, real-world images of complicated scenes for model images with high information content

    Music Maker – A Camera-based Music Making Tool for Physical Rehabilitation

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    The therapeutic effects of playing music are being recognized increasingly in the field of rehabilitation medicine. People with physical disabilities, however, often do not have the motor dexterity needed to play an instrument. We developed a camera-based human-computer interface called "Music Maker" to provide such people with a means to make music by performing therapeutic exercises. Music Maker uses computer vision techniques to convert the movements of a patient's body part, for example, a finger, hand, or foot, into musical and visual feedback using the open software platform EyesWeb. It can be adjusted to a patient's particular therapeutic needs and provides quantitative tools for monitoring the recovery process and assessing therapeutic outcomes. We tested the potential of Music Maker as a rehabilitation tool with six subjects who responded to or created music in various movement exercises. In these proof-of-concept experiments, Music Maker has performed reliably and shown its promise as a therapeutic device.National Science Foundation (IIS-0308213, IIS-039009, IIS-0093367, P200A01031, EIA-0202067 to M.B.); National Institutes of Health (DC-03663 to E.S.); Boston University (Dudley Allen Sargent Research Fund (to A.L.)
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