1,549 research outputs found

    ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations of IRAS galaxies; I. Soft X-ray and far-infrared properties

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    The 120,000 X-ray sources detected in the RASS II processing of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey are correlated with the 14,315 IRAS galaxies selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue: 372 IRAS galaxies show X-ray emission within a distance of 100 arcsec from the infrared position. By inspecting the structure of the X-ray emission in overlays on optical images we quantify the likelihood that the X-rays originate from the IRAS galaxy. For 197 objects the soft X-ray emission is very likely associated with the IRAS galaxy. Their soft X-ray properties are determined and compared with their far-infrared emission. X-ray contour plots overlaid on Palomar Digitized Sky Survey images are given for each of the 372 potential identifications. All images and tables displayed here are also available in electronic form.Comment: accepted for publication in A&AS, complete version including all figures and tables available at http://www.rosat.mpe-garching.mpg.de/~bol/iras_rassI

    Exploiting pattern transformation to tune phononic band gaps in a two-dimensional granular crystal

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    The band structure of a two-dimensional granular crystal composed of silicone rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cylinders is investigated numerically. This system was previously shown to undergo a pattern transformation with uniaxial compression by GöncĂŒ et al. [Soft Matter 7, 2321 (2011)]. The dispersion relations of the crystal are computed at different levels of deformation to demonstrate the tunability of the band structure, which is strongly affected by the pattern transformation that induces new band gaps. Replacement of PTFE particles with rubber ones reveals that the change of the band structure is essentially governed by pattern transformation rather than particlesÂż mechanical properties

    Ground-based detection of a vibration-rotation line of HD in Orion

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    The v =1-0 R(5) line of HD at 2.46um has been detected at the position of brightest line emission of shocked H2 in the Orion Molecular Cloud. The flux in this HD line, when compared to that of the previously detected HD 0--0 R(5) line at 19.43um, suggests that, like the v=1 levels of H2, the v=1 levels of HD are populated in LTE, despite their much higher rates of spontaneous emission compared to H2. The higher than expected population of vibrationally excited HD may be due to chemical coupling of HD to H2 via the reactive collisions HD + H H2 + D in the shocked gas. The deuterium abundance implied by the strengths of these lines relative to those of H2 is (5.1 pm 1.9 x 10^-6.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of the Conference on "Deuterium in the Universe," to be published in Planetary and Space Science

    Non-equilibrium photodissociation regions

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    We discuss the theory of coupled ionization--dissociation fronts produced when molecular clouds are exposed to \lambda < 1110\AA\ radiation from hot stars. A steady, composite structure is developed, which generally includes an ionized outflow away from the cloud, an ionization front, a layer of photodissociated gas, a photodissociation front, and a shock wave preceding the photodissociation front. We show that the properties of the structure are determined by two dimensionless parameters, \psi and \delta, and by the Alfv\'en speed in the preshock gas. For a broad range of parameters of interest, the ionization front and the hydrogen photodissociation front do not separate, the H_2 photodissociation and photoionization take place together, and a classical hydrogen ``photodissociation region'' (PDR) does not exist. We also show that even when a distinct photodissociation region exists, in many cases the dissociation front propagates too rapidly for the usual stationary models of PDRs to be applicable. We discuss several famous PDRs, e.g., in M17 and Orion and conclude that they cannot be described by equilibrium PDR models

    A Kiloparsec-Scale Hyper-Starburst in a Quasar Host Less than 1 Gigayear after the Big Bang

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    The host galaxy of the quasar SDSS J114816.64+525150.3 (at redshift z=6.42, when the Universe was <1 billion years old) has an infrared luminosity of 2.2x10^13 L_sun, presumably significantly powered by a massive burst of star formation. In local examples of extremely luminous galaxies such as Arp220, the burst of star formation is concentrated in the relatively small central region of <100pc radius. It is unknown on which scales stars are forming in active galaxies in the early Universe, which are likely undergoing their initial burst of star formation. We do know that at some early point structures comparable to the spheroidal bulge of the Milky Way must have formed. Here we report a spatially resolved image of [CII] emission of the host galaxy of J114816.64+525150.3 that demonstrates that its star forming gas is distributed over a radius of ~750pc around the centre. The surface density of the star formation rate averaged over this region is ~1000 M_sun/yr/kpc^2. This surface density is comparable to the peak in Arp220, though ~2 orders of magnitudes larger in area. This vigorous star forming event will likely give rise to a massive spheroidal component in this system.Comment: Nature, in press, Feb 5 issue, p. 699-70

    Large N gauge theories and topological cigars

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    We analyze the conjectured duality between a class of double-scaling limits of a one-matrix model and the topological twist of non-critical superstring backgrounds that contain the N=2 Kazama-Suzuki SL(2)/U(1) supercoset model. The untwisted backgrounds are holographically dual to double-scaled Little String Theories in four dimensions and to the large N double-scaling limit of certain supersymmetric gauge theories. The matrix model in question is the auxiliary Dijkgraaf-Vafa matrix model that encodes the F-terms of the above supersymmetric gauge theories. We evaluate matrix model loop correlators with the goal of extracting information on the spectrum of operators in the dual non-critical bosonic string. The twisted coset at level one, the topological cigar, is known to be equivalent to the c=1 non-critical string at self-dual radius and to the topological theory on a deformed conifold. The spectrum and wavefunctions of the operators that can be deduced from the matrix model double-scaling limit are consistent with these expectations.Comment: 34 page

    The Infrared Extinction Law at Extreme Depth in a Dark Cloud Core

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    We combined sensitive near-infrared data obtained with ground-based imagers on the ESO NTT and VLT telescopes with space mid-infrared data acquired with the IRAC imager on the Spitzer Space Telescope to calculate the extinction law A_\lambda/A_K as a function of \lambda between 1.25 and 7.76 micron to an unprecedented depth in Barnard 59, a star forming, dense core located in the Pipe Nebula. The ratios A_\lambda/A_K were calculated from the slopes of the distributions of sources in color-color diagrams \lambda-K vs. H-K. The distributions in the color-color diagrams are fit well with single slopes to extinction levels of A_K ~ 7 (A_V ~ 59 mag). Consequently, there appears to be no significant variation of the extinction law with depth through the B59 line of sight. However, when slopes are translated into the relative extinction coefficients A_\lambda/A_K, we find an extinction law which departs from the simple extrapolation of the near-infrared power law extinction curve, and agrees more closely with a dust extinction model for a cloud with a total to selective absorption R_V=5.5 and a grain size distribution favoring larger grains than those in the diffuse ISM. Thus, the difference we observe could be possibly due to the effect of grain growth in denser regions. Finally, the slopes in our diagrams are somewhat less steep than those from the study of Indebetouw et al. (2005) for clouds with lower column densities, and this indicates that the extinction law between 3 and 8 micron might vary slightly as a function of environment.Comment: 22 pages manuscript, 4 figures (2 multipart), 1 tabl