199 research outputs found

    An open--quantum--system formulation of particle decay

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    We consider an open quantum system which contains unstable states. The time evolution of the system can be described by an effective non-hermitian Hamiltonian H_{eff}, in accord with the Wigner--Weisskopf approximation, and an additional term of the Lindblad form, the socalled dissipator. We show that, after enlarging the original Hilbert space by states which represent the decay products of the unstable states, the non-hermitian part of H_{eff} --the ``particle decay''-- can be incorporated into the dissipator of the enlarged space via a specific Lindblad operator. Thus the new formulation of the time evolution on the enlarged space has a hermitian Hamiltonian and is probability conserving. The equivalence of the new formulation with the original one demonstrates that the time evolution which is governed by a non-hermitian Hamiltonian and a dissipator of the Lindblad form is nevertheless completely positive, just as systems with hermitian Hamiltonians.Comment: 8 page

    Hawking Radiation via Gravitational Anomalies in Non-spherical Topologies

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    We study the method of calculating the Hawking radiation via gravitational anomalies in gravitational backgrounds of constant negative curvature. We apply the method to topological black holes and also to topological black holes conformally coupled to a scalar field.Comment: 25 pages, no figures, version to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Canonical Formalism for a 2n-Dimensional Model with Topological Mass Generation

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    The four-dimensional model with topological mass generation that was found by Dvali, Jackiw and Pi has recently been generalized to any even number of dimensions (2n-dimensions) in a nontrivial manner in which a Stueckelberg-type mass term is introduced [S. Deguchi and S. Hayakawa, Phys. Rev. D 77, 045003 (2008), arXiv:0711.1446]. The present paper deals with a self-contained model, called here a modified hybrid model, proposed in this 2n-dimensional generalization and considers the canonical formalism for this model. For the sake of convenience, the canonical formalism itself is studied for a model equivalent to the modified hybrid model by following the recipe for treating constrained Hamiltonian systems. This formalism is applied to the canonical quantization of the equivalent model in order to clarify observable and unobservable particles in the model. The equivalent model (with a gauge-fixing term) is converted to the modified hybrid model (with a corresponding gauge-fixing term) in a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST)-invariant manner. Thereby it is shown that the Chern-Pontryagin density behaves as an observable massive particle (or field). The topological mass generation is thus verified at the quantum-theoretical level.Comment: 29 pages, no figures, minor corrections, published versio

    Can an odd number of fermions be created due to chiral anomaly?

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    We describe a possibility of creation of an odd number of fractionally charged fermions in 1+1 dimensional Abelian Higgs model. We point out that for 1+1 dimensions this process does not violate any symmetries of the theory, nor makes it mathematically inconsistent. We construct the proper definition of the fermionic determinant in this model and underline its non-trivial features that are of importance for realistic 3+1 dimensional models with fermion number violation.Comment: 12 pages revtex, 2 figure

    Commuting multiparty quantum observables and local compatibility

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    A formula for the commutator of tensor product matrices is used to shows that, for qubits, compatibility of quantum multiparty observables almost never implies local compatibility at each site and to predict when this happens/does not happen in a concise manner. In particular, it is shown that two ``fully nontrivial'' nn-qubit observables are compatible locally and globally if and only if they are equal up to sign. In addition, the formula gives insight into the construction of new paradoxes of the type of the Kochen-Specker Theorem, which can then be easily rephrased into proposals for new no hidden variable experiments of the type of the ``Bell Theorem without inequalities''.Comment: 6 page

    Decoherence modes of entangled qubits within neutron interferometry

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    We study two different decoherence modes for entangled qubits by considering a Liouville - von Neumann master equation. Mode A is determined by projection operators onto the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian and mode B by projectors onto rotated states. We present solutions for general and for Bell diagonal states and calculate for the later the mixedness and the amount of entanglement given by the concurrence. We propose a realization of the decoherence modes within neutron interferometry by applying fluctuating magnetic fields. An experimental test of the Kraus operator decomposition describing the evolution of the system for each mode is presented.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure