50 research outputs found

    The evolution of dam-litter microbial flora from birth to 60 days of age

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    BACKGROUND: Early bacterial colonization in puppies is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Although the topic is of considerable interest, a big gap in knowledge still exists on the understanding of timing and features of neonatal gut colonization. Thence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dam and litter microbial flora, in vaginally delivered puppies, from birth to two months of age. Bacteria were identified using MALDI-TOF, an accurate and sensitive method, and cluster analysis of data provided a new insight on the investigated topic. METHODS: Six dam-litter units of two medium size breeds were enrolled in the study. Vaginal and colostrum/milk samples were collected from dams after delivery and 48h post-partum, while rectal samples were taken from dams and puppies after delivery and at day 2, 30 and 60 (T2, T30 and T60, respectively) post-partum. Bacterial isolation and identification were performed following standard techniques, then the data were analyzed using a new approach based on bacterial genus population composition obtained using a wide MALDI-TOF screening and cluster analysis. RESULTS: Forty-eight bacteriological samples were collected from the dams and 145 from their 42 puppies. Colostrum/milk samples (n = 12) showed a bacterial growth mainly limited to few colonies. Staphylococci, Enterococci, E. coli, Proteus spp. were most frequently isolated. All vaginal swabs (n = 12) resulted in bacteria isolation (medium to high growth). Streptococci, Enterococci, E. coli were the most frequently detected. E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. were often obtained from dams’ and puppies’ rectal swabs. Clostridia, not isolated in any other sampling site, were rarely found (n = 3) in meconium while they were more frequently isolated at later times (T2: n = 30; T30: n = 17; T60: n = 27). Analysis of the bacterial genus pattern over time showed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.01) in the heterogeneity of microbial composition in all time points if compared to birth for each dam-litter unit. These results were confirmed with cluster analysis and two-dimensional scaling. CONCLUSION: This novel data analysis suggests a fundamental role of the individual dam in seeding and shaping the microbiome of the litter. Thus, modulating the dam’s microbiota may positively impact the puppy microbiota and benefit their health. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12917-022-03199-3

    Glioblastoma in the Elderly: Review of Molecular and Therapeutic Aspects

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    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumour. As GBM incidence is associated with age, elderly people represent a consistent subgroup of patients. Elderly people with GBM show dismal prognosis (about 6 months) and limited response to treatments. Age is a negative prognostic factor, which correlates with clinical frailty, poorer tolerability to surgery or adjuvant radio-chemotherapy, and higher occurrence of comorbidities and/or secondary complications. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical and molecular characteristics, current therapeutic options, and prognostic factors of elderly patients with GBM