247 research outputs found

    Searches for gravitational effects at the TeV scale with the ATLAS detector

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    The Standard Model presently does not explain why the gravitational force is weaker than the other forces. New physics models, for example those postulating the existence of extra dimensions, have been proposed to address this. This paper describes searches for gravitational effects performed by the ATLAS collaboration using data from proton-proton collisions recorded in 2011 at s\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV and in 2012 at s\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV, provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

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    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participants characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the grou-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggested that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee” typology

    Search for contact interactions and large extra dimensionsin the dilepton channel using proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A search, performed using the ATLAS experimental data, is conducted for non-resonant new phenomena in the dilepton final state, which could originate from contact interactions and large extra spatial dimensions. The full LHC 2012 proton-proton dataset is used comprising 21 fb−1 at s√ = 8 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector under nominal conditions. For the first time in ATLAS, forward-backward asymmetry was used as a search variable where relevant, in addition to invariant mass, to increase the search sensitivity to the new physics models under investigation

    The impact of three evidence-based programmes delivered in public systems in Birmingham, UK

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    The Birmingham Brighter Futures strategy was informed by epidemiological data on child well-being and evidence on “what works,” and included the implementation and evaluation of three evidence-based programmes in regular children’s services systems, as well as an integrated prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (reported elsewhere). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting programme involved 161 children aged three and four at risk of a social-emotional or behavioural disorder. An RCT of the universal PATHS social-emotional learning curriculum involved children aged four–six years in 56 primary schools. An RCT of the Level 4 Group Triple-P parenting programme involved parents of 146 children aged four–nine years with potential social-emotional or behavioural disorders. All three studies used validated standardised measures. Both parenting programme trials used parentcompleted measures of child and parenting behaviour. The school-based trial used teacher reports of children’s behaviour, emotions, and social competence. Incredible Years yielded reductions in negative parenting behaviours among parents, reductions in child behaviour problems, and improvements in children’s relationships. In the PATHS trial, modest improvements in emotional health and behavioural development after one year disappeared by the end of year two. There were no effects for Triple-P. Much can be learned from the strengths and limitations of the Birmingham experience

    Role of Kindness in Cancer Care

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    The wonders of high-tech cancer care are best complemented by the humanity of high-touch care. Simple kindnesses can help to diffuse negative emotions that are associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment-and may even help to improve patients\u27 outcomes. On the basis of our experience in cancer care and research, we propose six types of kindness in cancer care: deep listening , whereby clinicians take the time to truly understand the needs and concerns of patients and their families; empathy for the patient with cancer, expressed by both individual clinicians and the care culture, that seeks to prevent avoidable suffering; generous acts of discretionary effort that go beyond what patients and families expect from a care team; timely care that is delivered by using a variety of tools and systems that reduce stress and anxiety; gentle honesty, whereby the truth is conveyed directly in well-chosen, guiding words; and support for family caregivers, whose physical and mental well-being are vital components of the care their loved ones receive. These mutually reinforcing manifestations of kindness-exhibited by self-aware clinicians who understand that how care is delivered matters-constitute a powerful and practical way to temper the emotional turmoil of cancer for patients, their families, and clinicians themselves

    Incredible Years parenting programme: cost-effectiveness and implementation

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    Purpose – There is growing interest in the economic evaluation of public health prevention initiatives and increasing government awareness of the societal costs of conduct disorder in early childhood. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC parenting programme compared with a six-month waiting list control. Design/methodology/approach – Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a group-parenting programme. The primary outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child behaviour. Findings – The IY programme was found to have a high probability of being cost-effective, shifting an additional 23 per cent of children from above the clinical concern to below the cut-off on the SDQ compared to the control group, at a cost ranging from £1612-£2418 per child, depending on the number of children in the group. Originality/value – The positive findings of this study have led to ongoing implementation of the IY programme and is therefore an example of commitment to evidence-based service provision and investment in prevention initiatives

    Cardiac magnetic resonance findings predict increased resource utilization in elective coronary artery bypass grafting

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    Morbidity following CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) is difficult to predict and leads to increased healthcare costs. We hypothesized that pre-operative CMR (cardiac magnetic resonance) findings would predict resource utilization in elective CABG. Over a 12-month period, patients requiring elective CABG were invited to undergo CMR 1 day prior to CABG. Gadolinium-enhanced CMR was performed using a trueFISP inversion recovery sequence on a 1.5 tesla scanner (Sonata; Siemens). Clinical data were collected prospectively. Admission costs were quantified based on standardized actual cost/day. Admission cost greater than the median was defined as 'increased'. Of 458 elective CABG cases, 45 (10%) underwent pre-operative CMR. Pre-operative characteristics [mean (S.D.) age, 64 (9) years, mortality (1%) and median (interquartile range) admission duration, 7 (6–8) days] were similar in patients who did or did not undergo CMR. In the patients undergoing CMR, eight (18%) and 11 (24%) patients had reduced LV (left ventricular) systolic function by CMR [LVEF (LV ejection fraction) <55%] and echocardiography respectively. LE (late enhancement) with gadolinium was detected in 17 (38%) patients. The average cost/day was 2723.Themedian(interquartilerange)admissioncostwas2723. The median (interquartile range) admission cost was 19059 ($10891–157917). CMR LVEF {OR (odds ratio), 0.93 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.87–0.99]; P=0.03} and SV (stroke volume) index [OR 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00–1.14); P=0.02] predicted increased admission cost. CMR LVEF (P=0.08) and EuroScore tended to predict actual admission cost (P=0.09), but SV by CMR (P=0.16) and LV function by echocardiography (P=0.95) did not. In conclusion, in this exploratory investigation, pre-operative CMR findings predicted admission duration and increased admission cost in elective CABG surgery. The cost-effectiveness of CMR in risk stratification in elective CABG surgery merits prospective assessment

    The relevance of professionals’ attachment style, expectations and job attitudes for therapeutic relationships with young people who experience psychosis

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    Background: Therapeutic relationships are a central component of community treatment for psychosis and thought to influence clinical and social outcomes, yet there is limited research regarding the potential influence of professional characteristics on positive therapeutic relationships in community care. It was hypothesised that professionals’ relating style and attitudes toward their work might be important, and thus this exploratory study modelled associations between these characteristics and therapeutic relationships developed in community psychosis treatment. Methods: Dyads of professionals and young patients with psychosis rated their therapeutic relationships with each other. Professionals also completed measures of attachment style, therapeutic optimism, outcome expectancy, and job attitudes regarding working with psychosis. Results: Professionals’ anxious attachment predicted less positive professional therapeutic relationship ratings. In exploratory directed path analysis, data also supported indirect effects, whereby anxious professional attachment predicts less positive therapeutic relationships through reduced professional therapeutic optimism and less positive job attitudes. Conclusions: Professional anxious attachment style is directly associated with the therapeutic relationship in psychosis, and indirectly associated through therapeutic optimism and job attitudes. Thus, intervening in professional characteristics could offer an opportunity to limit the impact of insecure attachment on therapeutic relationships in psychosis
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