112 research outputs found

    Evaluative Perception: Introduction

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    In this Introduction we introduce the central themes of the Evaluative Perception volume. After identifying historical and recent contemporary work on this topic, we discuss some central questions under three headings: (1) Questions about the Existence and Nature of Evaluative Perception: Are there perceptual experiences of values? If so, what is their nature? Are experiences of values sui generis? Are values necessary for certain kinds of experience? (2) Questions about the Epistemology of Evaluative Perception: Can evaluative experiences ever justify evaluative judgments? Are experiences of values necessary for certain kinds of justified evaluative judgments? (3) Questions about Value Theory and Evaluative Perception: Is the existence of evaluative experience supported or undermined by particular views in value theory? Are particular views in value theory supported or undermined by the existence of value experience

    Narrative Understanding, Value and Diagnosis: A Particularist Account of Clinical Formulations and Shared Decision-Making in Mental Health

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    In this article, I deploy the notions of narrative and discernment as complementary support tools in understanding the moral significance of the first-person perspective in mental health. My aim is to develop and extend moral particularism’s emphasis on the significance of context and the general problem of relevance in understanding the dynamics of practical judgement and shared decision-making as applied to comprehensive diagnosis and integrated treatment. I argue that it is a mistake to think of the values embedded in responsible integrated care and patient involvement as either determined by the individual patient’s autobiographical narrative or as determined by the ‘top-down’ conception of health as presented in the biomedical model. What is missing in accounting for the idea of clinical decision-making as a shared enterprise is a relational account of the person and the wider diagnostic treatment context in understanding the process of perspective-taking. Such reorientation of focus makes available a distinctive conception of clinical knowledge, in which claims to objective meaning in patient narratives are criticised not as false per se, but as failing to yield the insight into the problem it was the point of those claims to provid

    Collaborative planning : a case study in participation with a focus on ecosystem services in the municipality of Vaggeryd

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    Integrering av ekosystemtjĂ€nster i den fysiska planeringen har blivit ett prioriterat mĂ„lomrĂ„de i svensk politik, ett ansvar som huvudsakligen ligger hos kommunerna. Framtagande av strategiska planeringsdokument, som en grönstrukturplan, kan vara ett sĂ€tt att integrera ekosystemtjĂ€nstperspektivet. De senaste decennierna har samtidigt betydelsen av samverkan och lokalsamhĂ€llets delaktighet i samhĂ€llsplaneringen blivit allt viktigare. Detta ses idag som en förutsĂ€ttning för en hĂ„llbar utveckling. Den hĂ€r fallstudien syftar till att undersöka en svensk kommuns förutsĂ€ttningar att skapa intern och extern delaktighet kring en grönstrukturplaneprocess. Studien undersöker hur delaktighet genom en ömsesidig lĂ€randeprocess skulle kunna designas. Dessutom utreds hinder och möjligheter för att uppnĂ„ lĂ„ngsiktighet i delaktighetsarbetet utifrĂ„n planens fokusomrĂ„den ekosystemtjĂ€nster och grön infrastruktur. Fallstudien Ă€r lokaliserad i Vaggeryds kommun i Jönköpings lĂ€n. Genom ett aktivt deltagande under arbetsmöten och samtal med projektledare i Vaggeryds kommun har studien blivit en del av grönstrukturplanens uppstartsprocess. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer och litteraturstudier har utgjort kompletterande metoder. Studien visar pĂ„ en toppstyrd process med begrĂ€nsade resurser men med stort engagemang och höga ambitioner hos projektledningen. Studier av litteratur och referensexempel visar pĂ„ att ömsesidiga lĂ€randeprocesser har potential att bygga tillit och nĂ€tverk mellan mĂ€nniskor och att delaktighetsprocessens struktur Ă€r central för att uppnĂ„ en ömsesidig lĂ€randeprocess. LĂ€mpliga aktörer och metoder att anvĂ€nda i den aktuella kommunen föreslĂ„s. Kommunens starka föreningsliv, en framvĂ€xande lokal politisk diskurs kring delaktighet och en engagerad projektgrupp utgör centrala styrkor i processen. Flera hinder finns för att uppnĂ„ en ömsesidig lĂ€randeprocess och lĂ„ngsiktighet med delaktighetsarbetet. Dessa hinder avser framförallt bristande tidsmĂ€ssiga och ekonomiska resurser, men Ă€ven brist pĂ„ intern samordning och engagemang. Slutligen ges nĂ„gra rekommendationer för hur kommunen skulle kunna arbeta vidare med ekosystemtjĂ€nster och delaktighet med lĂ„ngsiktighet som mĂ„lsĂ€ttning.Integration of ecosystem services has become a prioritized goal within spatial planning in Sweden, and the responsibility for its implementation lies mainly within the municipalities. Strategic planning documents, such as a green structure plan, is one way of integrating this perspective. At the same time, the importance of collaboration and participation of the civil society in planning has become more important during the last decades. It is commonly seen as a precondition for sustainable development in the current political debate as well as within the research society. This case study aims to examine the preconditions for citizen participation within a Swedish municipality, but also participation within the municipality organization itself, as a part of a green structure planning project. It investigates how participation, and more specifically a mutual learning process, could be designed. Finally, the study examines the possibilities and obstacles for long term participation with the focus on ecosystem services and green infrastructure, the main themes of the green structure plan. The case study is conducted in the municipality of Vaggeryd, located in the county of Jönköping in Sweden. Through active participation during work meetings and conversations with the project team in the municipality, this study has become a part of the initial phase of the green structure planning process. Semistructured interviews and literature studies constitutes complementing methods. This study describes a topdown process with limited resources, but also a process with commitment and high ambitions. Literature studies and the study of a reference project shows that mutual learning processes has the potential to build trust and networks between people and that the structure of a participation process is crucial for mutual learning. A suggestion for actors to be involved in the green structure planning process, as well as methods for mutual learning processes, is proposed. A strong and well organized civil society, an emerging local political discourse on participation and a committed project team constitute fundamental strengths and possibilities for long-term participation in the municipality of Vaggeryd. At the same time, there is a lack of resources, such as time and finances. There is also a lack of coordination within the municipality’s participation work as well as low commitment from colleagues. Finally, the study gives some recommendations for further work with ecosystem services and participation with a long-term perspective in mind

    Shared decision-making and relational moral agency: on seeing the person behind the ‘expert by experience’ in mental health research

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    The focus of this paper is the moral and scientific value of ‘expertise by experience’, that is, knowledge based on personal experience of ill mental health as a form of expertise in mental health research. In contrast to individualistic theories of personal autonomy and the first-person in bioethics, my account of shared decision-making is focussed on how a relational approach to the ‘person’ and ‘patient values’ can throw new light on our understanding of ‘voice’ in mental health research. The mistake, I argue, is to think that a commitment to listening to the patient voice in the process of perspective taking implies a threat to ‘objectivity’ in clinical practice and the very concept of evidence in the philosophy of science more generally. Instead, I use Helen Longino's account of epistemic validity in philosophy of science to argue that narrative experience and ‘patient perspective’ should be understood as an ongoing dynamic partnership working between the different stakeholders’ knowledge perspectives. I also address the connection between expertise by experience and the psychiatric significance of the personal self for the entrenched topics of agency, self-hood, personal identity, and self-knowledge in psychiatric diagnosis. In contrast to identity politics, my model of shared decision-making preserves a critical distance between perspective-taking and value itself in self/other appraisal as the gold standard for good clinical practice