4,471 research outputs found

    Real-time gauge theory simulations from stochastic quantization using optimized updating

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    Stochastic quantisation is applied to the problem of calculating real-time evolution on a Minkowskian space-time lattice. We employ optimized updating using reweighting, or gauge fixing, respectively. These procedures do not affect the underlying theory, but strongly improve the stability properties of the stochastic dynamics.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, contributed talk to SEWM 2008, Amsterda

    Turbulent spectra in real-time gauge field evolution

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    We investigate ultraviolet fixed points in the real-time evolution of non-Abelian gauge fields. Classical-statistical lattice simulations reveal equal-time correlation functions with a spectral index 3/2. Analytical understanding of this result is achieved by employing a 2PI- loop expansion for the quantum theory.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Talk presented at SEWM 2008, August 26-29, Amsterda

    QCD at high Baryon Density and Temperature: Competing Condensates and the Tricritical Point

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    The phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is explored as a function of temperature and baryon number density. We investigate the possible simultaneous formation of condensates in the conventional quark--anti-quark channel (breaking chiral symmetry) and in a quark--quark channel leading to color superconductivity: the spontaneous breaking of color symmetry via the formation of quark Cooper pairs. We point out that for two massless quark flavors a tricritical point in the phase diagram separates a chiral symmetry restoring first order transition at high densities from the second order transition at high temperatures. Away from the chiral limit this tricritical point becomes a second order phase transition with Ising model exponents, suggesting that a long correlation length may develop in heavy ion collisions in which the phase transition is traversed at the appropriate density.Comment: Talk given at the Workshop on QCD at Finite Baryon Density: A Complex System with a Complex Action, Bielefeld, Germany, 27-30 Apr 1998; 7 pages; references adde

    Introduction to the nonequilibrium functional renormalization group

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    In these lectures we introduce the functional renormalization group out of equilibrium. While in thermal equilibrium typically a Euclidean formulation is adequate, nonequilibrium properties require real-time descriptions. For quantum systems specified by a given density matrix at initial time, a generating functional for real-time correlation functions can be written down using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path. This can be used to construct a nonequilibrium functional renormalization group along similar lines as for Euclidean field theories in thermal equilibrium. Important differences include the absence of a fluctuation-dissipation relation for general out-of-equilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium renormalization group takes on a particularly simple form at a fixed point, where the corresponding scale-invariant system becomes independent of the details of the initial density matrix. We discuss some basic examples, for which we derive a hierarchy of fixed point solutions with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium. The latter solutions are then associated to the phenomenon of turbulence in quantum field theory.Comment: Lectures given at the 49th Schladming Winter School `Physics at all scales: The Renormalization Group' (to appear in the proceedings); 24 pages, 3 figure

    Isotropization far from equilibrium

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    Isotropization occurs on time scales much shorter than the thermal equilibration time. This is a crucial ingredient for the understanding of collision experiments of heavy nuclei or other nonequilibrium phenomena in complex many body systems. We discuss in detail the limitations of estimates based on standard ``linear'' or relaxation-time approximations, where isotropization and thermal equilibration rates agree. For a weak-coupling Ōē4\phi^4-model the relaxation-time approximation underestimates the thermal equilibration time by orders of magnitude, in contrast to the isotropization time. The characteristic nonequilibrium isotropization rate can be enhanced as compared to the close-to-equilibrium value. Our results are obtained from the two-particle irreducible effective action, which includes off-shell and memory effects and does not involve a gradient expansion. This allows us to determine the range of validity of a description to lowest-order in gradients, which is typically employed in kinetic equations.Comment: 27 pages, 7 figures, NPB version, minor text change

    The Joint COntrols Project Framework

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    The Framework is one of the subprojects of the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP), which is collaboration between the four LHC experiments and CERN. By sharing development, this will reduce the overall effort required to build and maintain the experiment control systems. As such, the main aim of the Framework is to deliver a common set of software components, tools and guidelines that can be used by the four LHC experiments to build their control systems. Although commercial components are used wherever possible, further added value is obtained by customisation for HEP-specific applications. The supervisory layer of the Framework is based on the SCADA tool PVSS, which was selected after a detailed evaluation. This is integrated with the front-end layer via both OPC (OLE for Process Control), an industrial standard, and the CERN-developed DIM (Distributed Information Management System) protocol. Several components are already in production and being used by running fixed-target experiments at CERN as well as for the LHC experiment test beams. The paper will give an overview of the key concepts behind the project as well as the state of the current development and future plans.Comment: Paper from the 2003 Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP03), La Jolla, Ca, USA, March 2003, 4 pages, PDF. PSN THGT00

    Unlocking Color and Flavor in Superconducting Strange Quark Matter

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    We explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter with massless u and d quarks as a function of the strange quark mass m_s and the chemical potential mu for baryon number. Neglecting electromagnetism, we describe the different baryonic and quark matter phases at zero temperature. For quark matter, we support our model-independent arguments with a quantitative analysis of a model which uses a four-fermion interaction abstracted from single-gluon exchange. For any finite m_s, at sufficiently large mu we find quark matter in a color-flavor locked state which leaves a global vector-like SU(2)_{color+L+R} symmetry unbroken. As a consequence, chiral symmetry is always broken in sufficiently dense quark matter. As the density is reduced, for sufficiently large m_s we observe a first order transition from the color-flavor locked phase to a color superconducting phase analogous to that in two flavor QCD. At this unlocking transition chiral symmetry is restored. For realistic values of m_s our analysis indicates that chiral symmetry breaking may be present for all densities down to those characteristic of baryonic matter. This supports the idea that quark matter and baryonic matter may be continuously connected in nature. We map the gaps at the quark Fermi surfaces in the high density color-flavor locked phase onto gaps at the baryon Fermi surfaces at low densities.Comment: Latex with eps figures, 28 pages, minor corrections, references update
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