36,482 research outputs found

### Dijet Event Shapes as Diagnostic Tools

Event shapes have long been used to extract information about hadronic final
states and the properties of QCD, such as particle spin and the running
coupling. Recently, a family of event shapes, the angularities, has been
introduced that depends on a continuous parameter. This additional
parameter-dependence further extends the versatility of event shapes. It
provides a handle on nonperturbative power corrections, on non-global
logarithms, and on the flow of color in the final state.Comment: 18 pages, 3 figure

### Effect of differences in proton and neutron density distributions on fission barriers

The neutron and proton density distributions obtained in constrained
Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov calculations with the Gogny force along the fission
paths of 232Th, 236U, 238U and 240Pu are analyzed.
Significant differences in the multipole deformations of neutron and proton
densities are found. The effect on potential energy surfaces and on barrier
heights of an additional constraint imposing similar spatial distributions to
neutrons and protons, as assumed in macroscopic-microscopic models, is studied.Comment: 5 pages in Latex, 4 figures in ep

### Analytic Calculation of Prompt Photon plus Associated Heavy Flavor at Next-to-Leading Order in QCD

Contributions through second order, $O(\alpha ^2_s)$, in perturbative quantum
chromodynamics are calculated analytically for inclusive associated production
of a prompt photon and a charm quark at large values of transverse momentum in
high energy hadron-hadron collisions. Seven partonic subprocesses contribute at
order $\alpha^2_s$. We find important corrections to the lowest order,
$O(\alpha_s)$, subprocess $c g \rightarrow \gamma c$. We demonstrate to what
extent data from $p +\bar{p}\rightarrow \gamma + c + X$ may serve to measure
the charm quark density in the nucleon.Comment: 34 pages RevTex plus 9 figures submitted as uuencoded ps files;
figures replaced and text revised to include one additional referenc

### Infrared Imaging of Capella with the IOTA Closure Phase Interferometer

We present infrared aperture synthesis maps produced with the upgraded IOTA
interferometer. Michelson interferograms on the close binary system Capella
(Alpha Aur) were obtained in the H-band between 2002 November 12 and 16 using
the IONIC3 beam combiner. With baselines of 15m < B < 38m, we were able to
determine the relative position of the binary components with milliarcsecond
(mas) precision and to track their movement along the approx. 14 degree arc
covered by our observation run. We briefly describe the algorithms used for
visibility and closure phase estimation. Three different Hybrid Mapping and
Bispectrum Fitting techniques were implemented within one software framework
and used to reconstruct the source brightness distribution. By dividing our
data into subsets, the system could be mapped at three epochs, revealing the
motion of the stars. The precise position of the binary components was also
determined with model fits, which in addition revealed I_Aa/I_Ab=1.49 +/- 0.10
and apparent stellar uniform-disk (UD) diameters of Theta_Aa=8.9 +/- 0.6 mas
and Theta_Ab=5.8 +/- 0.8 mas.
To improve the u, v-plane coverage, we compensated this orbital motion by
applying a rotation-compensating coordinate transformation. The resulting
model-independent map with a beam size of 5.4 x 2.6 mas allows the resolution
of the stellar surfaces of the Capella giants themselves.Comment: Accepted by the Astronomical Journal (2005-03-21

### Systematic Errors in Cosmic Microwave Background Interferometry

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require
superb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific
potential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may
provide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve
these goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of
a variety of systematic errors on interferometric CMB polarization
observations, with particular emphasis on estimates of the B-mode power
spectrum. The most severe errors are those that couple the temperature
anisotropy signal to polarization; such errors include cross-talk within
detectors, misalignment of polarizers, and cross-polarization. In a B mode
experiment, the next most serious category of errors are those that mix E and B
modes, such as gain fluctuations, pointing errors, and beam shape errors. The
paper also indicates which sources of error may cause circular polarization
(e.g., from foregrounds) to contaminate the cosmologically interesting linear
polarization channels, and conversely whether monitoring of the circular
polarization channels may yield useful information about the errors themselves.
For all the sources of error considered, estimates of the level of control that
will be required for both E and B mode experiments are provided. Both
experiments that interfere linear polarizations and those that interfere
circular polarizations are considered. The fact that circular experiments
simultaneously measure both linear polarization Stokes parameters in each
baseline mitigates some sources of error.Comment: 19 pages, 9 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

### Ferrimagnetism of the magnetoelectric compound Cu$_2$OSeO$_3$ probed by $^{77}$Se NMR

We present a thorough $^{77}$Se NMR study of a single crystal of the
magnetoelectric compound Cu$_2$OSeO$_3$. The temperature dependence of the
local electronic moments extracted from the NMR data is fully consistent with a
magnetic phase transition from the high-T paramagnetic phase to a low-T
ferrimagnetic state with 3/4 of the Cu$^{2+}$ ions aligned parallel and 1/4
aligned antiparallel to the applied field of 14.09 T. The transition to this
3up-1down magnetic state is not accompanied by any splitting of the NMR lines
or any abrupt modification in their broadening, hence there is no observable
reduction of the crystalline symmetry from its high-T cubic \textit{P}2$_1$3
space group. These results are in agreement with high resolution x-ray
diffraction and magnetization data on powder samples reported previously by Bos
{\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. B, {\bf 78}, 094416 (2008)]. We also develop a mean
field theory description of the problem based on a microscopic spin Hamiltonian
with one antiferromagnetic ($J_\text{afm}\simeq 68$ K) and one ferromagnetic
($J_\text{fm}\simeq -50$ K) nearest-neighbor exchange interaction

### Increased Yield of ttbb at Hadron Colliders in Low-Energy Supersymmetry

Light bottom squarks and gluinos have been invoked to explain the b quark
pair production excess at the Tevatron. We investigate the associated
production of ttbb at hadron colliders in this scenario, and find that the
rates for this process are enhanced over the Standard Model prediction. If
light gluinos exist, it may be possible to detect them at the Tevatron, and
they could easily be observed at the LHC.Comment: 5p, references added, version accepted to PR

### Universal response of the type-II Weyl semimetals phase diagram

The discovery of Weyl semimetals represents a significant advance in
topological band theory. They paradigmatically enlarged the classification of
topological materials to gapless systems while simultaneously providing
experimental evidence for the long-sought Weyl fermions. Beyond fundamental
relevance, their high mobility, strong magnetoresistance, and the possible
existence of even more exotic effects, such as the chiral anomaly, make Weyl
semimetals a promising platform to develop radically new technology. Fully
exploiting their potential requires going beyond the mere identification of
materials and calls for a detailed characterization of their functional
response, which is severely complicated by the coexistence of surface- and
bulk-derived topologically protected quasiparticles, i.e., Fermi arcs and Weyl
points, respectively. Here, we focus on the type-II Weyl semimetal class where
we find a stoichiometry-dependent phase transition from a trivial to a
non-trivial regime. By exploring the two extreme cases of the phase diagram, we
demonstrate the existence of a universal response of both surface and bulk
states to perturbations. We show that quasi-particle interference patterns
originate from scattering events among surface arcs. Analysis reveals that
topologically non-trivial contributions are strongly suppressed by spin
texture. We also show that scattering at localized impurities generate
defect-induced quasiparticles sitting close to the Weyl point energy. These
give rise to strong peaks in the local density of states, which lift the Weyl
node significantly altering the pristine low-energy Weyl spectrum. Visualizing
the microscopic response to scattering has important consequences for
understanding the unusual transport properties of this class of materials.
Overall, our observations provide a unifying picture of the Weyl phase diagram

### Production of a Prompt Photon in Association with Charm at Next-to-Leading Order in QCD

A second order, $O(\alpha ^2_s)$, calculation in perturbative quantum
chromodynamics of the two particle inclusive cross section is presented for the
reaction $p +\bar{p}\rightarrow \gamma + c + X$ for large values of the
transverse momentum of the prompt photon and charm quark. The combination of
analytic and Monte Carlo integration methods used here to perform phase-space
integrations facilitates imposition of photon isolation restrictions and other
selections of relevance in experiments. Differential distributions are provided
for various observables. Positive correlations in rapidity are predicted.Comment: 27 pages in RevTex plus 14 figures in one compressed PS fil

### Massive Lepton Pairs as a Prompt Photon Surrogate

We discuss the transverse momentum distribution for the production of massive
lepton-pairs in hadron reactions at fixed target and collider energies within
the context of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. For
values of the transverse momentum $Q_T$ greater than the pair mass $Q$, $Q_T >
Q$, we show that the differential cross section is dominated by subprocesses
initiated by incident gluons. Massive lepton-pair differential cross sections
are an advantageous source of constraints on the gluon density, free from the
experimental and theoretical complications of photon isolation that beset
studies of prompt photon production. We compare calculations with data and
provide predictions for the differential cross section as a function of $Q_T$
in proton-antiproton reactions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 TeV, and in
proton-nucleon reactions at fixed target and LHC energies.Comment: 36 pages, RevTeX, including 16 ps files of figures; minor changes in
wording; one reference added. Version to appear in Phys Rev

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