495 research outputs found

    Object Reduction in Aleut

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    Unangam Tunuu

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    Syllabus - Practicum on Unangam Tunuu, CoLang 2016This workshop prepares the student for the 3-week practicum focusing on fieldwork on a sleeping or less accessible language using archival materials; the language we focus on (for both the workshop and practicum) is Unangam Tunuu (Eastern Aleut, ISO 6390ale). The workshop class will cover the language and cultural history, linguistic structure, the history of language documentation and description in Unangam Tunuu, and the main resources and foci of previous linguistic research. Students will be required to do the readings and to familiarize themselves with leading articles or reference books in the field, in particular with the Aleut Dictionary and Aleut Grammar by Knut Bergsland. Time permitting, we will do some group activities using these reference sources

    Contact-induced lexical development in Yupik and Inuit languages

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    Lexical change in Yupik and Inuit languages was relatively slow until the period of widespread cultural change brought about by contact with Europeans over the past few centuries, probably because there had been little earlier contact with other language families. The colonial period brought various groups to the Arctic and different waves of language contact, primarily with Danish, French, English, and Russian. Lexical borrowing has been significant, and old borrowings, often the result of early trade, can be distinguished from later ones and often pertain to food, tobacco, tools, fabric and other areas where new goods were introduced. Later borrowings came about largely when European political structures were set up and may be less thoroughly integrated phonologically than older borrowings. Numbers of borrowings can be taken to reflect the extent of the foreign contact, as is clearly the case with Russian words in Alaskan languages, most numerous in Aleut, which had the most sustained Russian presence. New religious terms to describe Christianity came into the languages during the colonial period, sometimes as borrowings, but also as relexicalizations of old words pertaining to shamanism. A third means of lexical expansion is coinage, where new terms are invented based on native roots and suffixes. The languages and dialects may thus develop words for the same object or concept by borrowing from different European languages, by relexicalizing an old word, or by coining a new one, with a different result in each case. Different sources for new lexical items have resulted in an important level of differentiation among the languages, and this differentiation needs to be recognized.Le changement lexical des langues yupik et inuit a √©t√© relativement lent jusqu'√† la p√©riode des vastes changements culturels engendr√©s par le contact avec les Europ√©ens au cours de ces derniers si√®cles, sans doute parce qu'il n'y avait eu, jusque l√†, que peu de contacts avec d'autres langues. La p√©riode coloniale a amen√© plusieurs groupes dans l'Arctique et diff√©rentes vagues de contacts de langues, principalement avec le danois, le fran√ßais, l'anglais et le russe. L'emprunt lexical a √©t√© consid√©rable et les premiers emprunts, souvent le r√©sultat des tous premiers trocs, peuvent se distinguer des suivants et se rapportent souvent √† la nourriture, au tabac, aux outils, aux tissus et aux autres domaines o√Ļ de nouvelles denr√©es √©taient introduites. Les emprunts plus tardifs sont apparus en grand nombre avec la mise en place des structures politiques europ√©ennes, et d'un point de vue phonologique, sont peut-√™tre moins enti√®rement int√©gr√©s que les premiers. Nombre d'emprunts peuvent √™tre pr√©sent√©s en tant que reflet de l'√©tendu du contact avec l'√©tranger comme c'est clairement le cas des langues d'Alaska qui contiennent des mots russes; les plus nombreux sont dans l'al√©oute, langue parl√©e dans la r√©gion qui a connu une pr√©sence russe des plus importantes. De nouveaux termes religieux pour d√©crire le christianisme ont √©t√© introduits pendant la p√©riode coloniale, parfois comme emprunts mais aussi comme des relexicalisations de mots pr√©c√©demment li√©s au chamanisme. Le n√©ologisme est la troisi√®me voie d'expansion lexicale o√Ļ de nouveaux termes sont invent√©s, fond√©s sur les racines et les suffixes de la langue d'origine. Par cons√©quent, les langues et les dialectes peuvent d√©velopper des mots pour le m√™me objet ou le m√™me concept en empruntant aux langues europ√©ennes, en relexicalisant un mot ancien ou en cr√©ant un mot nouveau avec √† chaque fois un r√©sultat diff√©rent. Les diff√©rentes sources de ces nouveaux items lexicaux ont eu pour r√©sultat un important niveau de diff√©renciation parmi les langues et cette derni√®re se doit d'√™tre identifi√©e

    Swedish State Politics Meets Experiences Among Relatives of Persons with Mental Disability

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    AbstractMental disability is one of the most serious health problems facing Europe today. The reform of psychiatric care in Sweden ha s passed much of the rehabilitation and daily care of these people on to their families/relatives. The aim of this article is to analyze how the psychiatric reform in Sweden affects everyday life experiences among close relatives of persons with mental disabilities. It is an explorative, descriptive study using inductive qualitative content analysis of 18 individual interviews with close relatives. In order to deepen the understanding of the relatives’ situation and the consequences of the psychiatry reform, the relatives’ statements are put in a dialogue with how problems are represented in documents that form the basis of the psychiatry reform. The result indicates that the reform of psychiatric care in Sweden has put the solution of problems on the relatives, but for the relatives there is still no consensus among the different care providers, county council, municipal and national social servi ces that are involved in treatment. The results further indicate that the relatives feel guilty about not providing enough support for the persons with mental disabilities, and they expressed a need for personal support; a need for better information, consistency throughout the caring process and professional therapy for themselves as well. Children of parents with mental disabilities express a need for assistance, opportunities for participation in care, and information about their parents’ illness. Even th ough there are a lot of bad experiences, all relatives could also relate to positive experiences, i.e. open dialogues, relevant information and timely care and support given by some hospital staff. We recommend that relatives’ experiences are taken seriously in further reforms of the psychiatric care and that relatives meet in different kinds of supportive networks

    Automatic Reaction - What Happens to Workers at Firms that Automate?

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    We provide the first estimate of the impacts of automation on individual workers by combining Dutch micro-data with a direct measure of automation expenditures covering firms in all private non-financial industries over 2000-2016. Using an event study differences-indifferences design, we find that automation at the firm increases the probability of workers separating from their employers and decreases days worked, leading to a 5-year cumulative wage income loss of about 8% of one year’s earnings for incumbent workers. We find little change in wage rates. Further, lost wage earnings are only partially offset by various benefits systems and are disproportionately borne by older workers and workers with longer firm tenure. Compared to findings from a literature on mass layoffs, the effects of automation are more gradual and automation displaces far fewer workers, both at the individual firms and in the workforce overall

    Sosialt arbeid i m√łte med Nav og arbeidslinja

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    Form√•let med oppgaven er √• se sosialt arbeid i kontekst av Nav og arbeidslinja, og utforske om fagets verdier lar seg forene med organisasjonen og dens m√•lsettinger. Oppgaven fors√łker √• belyse hvordan politiske og samfunnsmessige faktorer p√•virker Nav som organisasjon og dermed det sosialfaglige arbeidet i m√łte med arbeidsl√łshet. Artikkelen retter et kritisk blikk p√• systemet som flere sosialarbeidere representerer og mange ulike brukergrupper er i kontakt med.The article researches how social work is practiced through Nav (the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration) and if implementation of the Norwegian work line is compatible with professional values. The study discusses how societal structures and politics effect Nav as an organisation and therefore the social work in meeting with unemployment. The article has a critical outlook on the system so many social workers represent and different clients are in contact with

    EMV-utvecklingens effekter på mjölkproducenterna

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    Utvecklingen av egna märkesvaror (EMV) är i framfart i dagligvarubranschen och trenden ser ut att hålla i sig. Denna utveckling har hittills inte varit så framträdande inom just mejeribranschen. Sedan början av 2000-talet har EMV-mejeriprodukterna ökat, då mejerier har gått med på att tillverka EMV-mejeriprodukter åt dagligvaruhandeln. Mejerierna har varit negativa till denna utveckling, men försöker nu se en chans i att kunna växa tillsammans med dagligvaruhandeln. Samtidigt har en av dagligvarukedjorna en egen tillväxtstrategi då det förvärvade ett eget mejeri som nu är i drift. Via denna strategi kan mejeriet sänka konsumentpriset på mejeriprodukterna i butik och samtidigt betala ett högre avräkningspris till mjölkleverantören. Problematiken, med en utvecklad EMV-produktion i Sverige, uppkommer hos mjölkproducenten genom att han/hon får ett lägre avräkningspris. Genom att mejerierna får lägre betalt för de egna märkesvarorna, minskar företagets resultat, vilket leder till att mjölkproducenten får mindre betalt för mjölkråvaran. Syftet med studien är att EMV-utvecklingens påverkan på mjölkproducenten ska beskrivas genom teoretiska resonemang. För att få en helhetsbild av problematiken kommer även interaktionen mellan mejeri och dagligvaruhandel vara i fokus, då det påverkar mjölkproducenten. För att studera interaktionen, aktörerna emellan, kommer en litteraturstudie genomföras med hjälp av vertikal integration och agentteorin. Teorin baseras på verkliga fall genom att citat från mejerier och dagligvaruhandeln, publicerade i massmedia, förklaras och kritiseras. Varje mjölkproducent påverkas olika av EMV-utvecklingen beroende på vilket mejeri de levererar till och huruvida mejeriet är del av ett EMV-samarbete eller inte. Sammantaget leder utbredningen av EMV till att mejeriernas varumärken får ökad konkurrens och i värsta fall slås ut. På kort sikt kan det vara bra för mjölkproducenten att mejeriet ingår ett EMV-samarbete med dagligvaruhandeln, eftersom mejeriet kan öka sin omsättning. Leder omsättningsökningen till en ökad vinst, kan mjölkproducenten få fördelar genom att avräkningspriset stiger. Ur mjölkproducentens perspektiv kan det på lång sikt vara sämre att mejeriet tillverkar EMV-mejeriprodukter till en dagligvaruhandel, då handeln kan utnyttja sin maktposition och pressa mjölkråvarupriset.Private label products are expanding in the grocery chains and the trend seems to continue. This development has not previously been especially prominent in the dairy industry. Since the early 2000s, private label dairy products have increased, as dairies now have agreed to produce private label dairy products to the retail chains. The dairies use to oppose to this development, but are now see a chance of being able to grow along with the retail sector. One of the retail chains has its own growth strategy since it acquired its own dairy, which is now in operation. Through this strategy, the retailer may cut its prices of dairy products at the same time paying a higher settlement price to the milk supplier. A problem with private label production is that the dairy farmers get a lower settlement price. When the dairies are paid less for their private label products their business’ results decline, which means that the dairy farmer gets paid less for the milk. This study comprises a theoretical analysis of how the underlying pattern around private label development affects dairy farmers. The interrelationship between dairies and retail chains are in focus, because these relationships affect the dairy farmers. To examine the interaction between the various stakeholders a theoretical toolbox is chosen, comprising transaction cost theory and agency theory. These theories are used to analyze empirical facts concerning private labeling in the dairy industry. The data are collected from mass media. A number of quotations are presented, analyzed and criticized. Dairy farmers are affected differently by private labeling depending on which dairy the farmer delivers the milk to and whether the dairy has a private label partnership contract with a retail chain. The dairies’ production of private label products to the retail chains will intensify competition and at worst threaten the dairies’ own labels. In the short run it may be good for the dairy farmer that the dairy becomes a part of a private label partnership with retail, since the dairy can increase its revenues. If the revenues increase the profits may rise and the dairy farmer benefits when the settlement price rises. In the long run it may be bad for the dairy farmer if the dairies produce private label products to the retail chains. The retailers may take advantage of their superior power position to cut milk commodity prices

    Displasia de codo en la especie canina

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    La displasia de codo canina es una enfermedad ortop√©dica muy frecuente en la cl√≠nica veterinaria depeque√Īos animales. En efecto, es la principal responsable de problemas de cojera uni o bilateral delmiembro tor√°cico en perros en crecimiento. Se trata de una enfermedad √≥sea polig√©nica ymultifactorial, que cursa con un desarrollo anormal de la articulaci√≥n del codo. Est√°n descritosdiferentes factores que intervienen en su aparici√≥n como la alimentaci√≥n, el sobrepeso, el ejerciciointenso, el crecimiento r√°pido y la raza del perro, siendo m√°s com√ļn en aquellas razas grandes ogigantes. La enfermedad abarca cuatro principales formas de presentaci√≥n: la Fragmentaci√≥n delProceso Coronoides Medial (FPCM), la No Uni√≥n del Proceso Anc√≥neo (NUPA), la OsteocondritisDisecante (OCD) y la Incongruencia del codo (IC). Estas patolog√≠as pueden presentarse de forma aisladao conjunta, causando inevitablemente osteoartrosis a largo plazo.En este trabajo, se realiza una revisi√≥n bibliogr√°fica de la displasia de codo canina, centr√°ndose en suetiolog√≠a, patogenia, signos cl√≠nicos, diagn√≥stico y diferentes estrategias de tratamiento.<br /
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