127 research outputs found

    A New Challenge: Testing the Video Course

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    This paper offers some preliminary thoughts on the testing ofvideo courses, including a review of the literature and an examinationof the research on the subject. The unique characteristics ofvideo courses suggest that different language learning outcomes maybe expected, which means that creating appropriate tests is thereforea new challenge for language teachers. The paper lists subtesttypes, and gives an example of a test used by the authors. Based onthis experience, a number of guidelines are offered regarding thecreation of appropriate tests, and a direction for future research inthe area is suggested

    The Latinate Structure of French Grammars in Nineteenth-Century Britain

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    For much of the nineteenth century, modern foreign language (MFL) pupils laboured under the Latinate, or classical, system. That system appeared to offer the correct, best, and most appropriate pedagogic model for language learning, starting as it did with the foundations and moving upwards to complete the whole edifice: the "architectural" metaphor. Consequently, MFL teaching began with the letters (Orthography) , then proceeded to the words (Etymology/morphology), and finally to complete sentences (Syntax). A data set of the major French grammars of the nineteenth century gives at least a partial picture of how MFL teaching was usually conducted. Further, the Latinate approach is seen as coping tolerably well with the social and pedagogic realities of the era, and therefore was not as indefensible as some accounts of "grammar-translation" would suggest. One conclusion of the paper is that for MFLs the Reform Movement was slower to take effect than is generally imagined

    This Pious Worke : The Teaching of Classical Languages in Colonial New English

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    When the aims, traditions and methods of the English grammar school were transferred almost wholesale to Puritan New England, starting from approximately 1630, the teaching of the classical languages-specifically Latin, Greek and Hebrew-thereby became the central tenet of New England education. A tradition of Latin schools, beginning with the Boston Latin School (1635), spread across the new colony, and remained in place until approximately 1800. This paper argues that the teaching and learning of Classical languages in New England was not an aberrant event but was the foundation of the American language learning experience. The "Protestant" approach to Classical language teaching brought with it increased use of the vernacular, which accorded well with the Puritan outlook. This outlook also approved of the "pyramid" view of language learning, which involved the laying of a solid foundation, largely but not exclusively in the grammar of the language. Latin, the first and most comprehensively taught of the Classical languages, was not seen as a group of separate skills, and it is misleading to pin the reductionist "grammar-translation" label on it. Memorization was strenuously cultivated, as were meticulousness and mastery. Mastery was an essential concept, and indeed there was no advance for a student who could not master the material. Teachers were concerned about pronunciation models, the teaching of syntax, vocabulary, dictionary use, and broad aspects of Classical history and culture. More practically, the teachers were also concerned that their students reach the required standards for university entrance, meaning proficiency in Latin and a modest acquaintance with Greek grammar. The generally harsh conditions prevalent in Colonial Latin schools produced little innovation in international language teaching terms, but the local model of language teaching that was established in the seventeenth century remains-like the Constitution of 1787-as a constant reminder of early promise and achievement

    The Secret Life of Grammar Translation:Part 1

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    Grammar-translation, the method of teaching a language by the intensive study of its grammar and the application of that grammar to the translation of texts, is here examined in its full historical context. Beginning with the bilingual experiences of Roman schoolboys, this language teaching method has been associated with social constructs such as authority, elitism, conservatism, and the search for superior models of living. These, and other, constructs made it attractive at certain periods of language teaching history, and comprise its "secret" life. They in part explain why, despite the pressure of alternative methods, it continues to flourish in certain international contexts today. Part 1 of this paper deals with Roman education and the Reformation-Renaissance period. Part 2 will deal with the nineteenth century and the modern international language teaching situation

    The effect of crack orientation on the nonlinear interaction of a P wave with an S wave

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    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presence and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal

    The prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media: a systematic review

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    BACKGROUND: Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media are relatively common and potentially life threatening. Opinion is divided as to the utility of medications for preventing these reactions. We performed a systematic review to assess regimes for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media. METHODS: Searches for studies were conducted in the Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases. Bibliographies of included studies and review articles were examined and experts were contacted. Randomised clinical trials that examined agents given prior to iodinated contrast material for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions were included in the review. The validity of the included studies was examined using a component approach. RESULTS: Six studies met the inclusion criteria, but only one of these fulfilled all of the validity criteria. There were four studies that examined the use of H1 antihistamines, each was used to prevent anaphylactoid reactions to ionic contrast. The random effects pooled relative risk demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall rate of anaphylactoid reactions (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-0.9, p = 0.027). There were insufficient studies to produce a pooled statistic for the use of corticosteroids, however regimes of steroids (methylprednisolone 32 mg) given at least six hours and again two hours prior to the administration of contrast suggested a reduction in the incidence of anaphylactoid reactions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there are few high quality randomised clinical trials that have addressed the question of the optimal methods to prevent allergic type reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media. Allowing for these limitations, the results suggest that H1 antihistamines given immediately prior to the administration of ionic contrast may be useful in preventing reactions to ionic contrast and are suggestive of a protective effect of corticosteroids when given in two doses at least six hours prior and again two hours prior to the administration of contrast, both ionic and non-ionic. These agents should be considered for use in patients who are at high risk of an anaphylactoid reaction to contrast media and for who prophylactic therapy is considered necessary. Further research is needed before definitive recommendations can be made