32,146 research outputs found

### Explaining Phenomenologically Observed Space-time Flatness Requires New Fundamental Scale Physics

The phenomenologically observed flatness - or near flatness - of spacetime
cannot be understood as emerging from continuum Planck (or sub-Planck) scales
using known physics. Using dimensional arguments it is demonstrated that any
immaginable action will lead to Christoffel symbols that are chaotic. We put
forward new physics in the form of fundamental fields that spontaneously break
translational invariance. Using these new fields as coordinates we define the
metric in such a way that the Riemann tensor vanishes identically as a Bianchi
identity. Hence the new fundamental fields define a flat space. General
relativity with curvature is recovered as an effective theory at larger scales
at which crystal defects in the form of disclinations come into play as the
sources of curvature.Comment: This article were already in 2011 published as Proceedings of the
14th Bled Conference on "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models" organized by
Norma Manko Borstnik, Dragan Lukman, Maxim Khlopov, and H.B. Nielse

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### An Ontology for Grounding Vague Geographic Terms

Many geographic terms, such as “river” and “lake”, are vague, with no clear boundaries of application. In particular, the spatial extent of such features is often vaguely carved out of a continuously varying observable domain. We present a means of defining vague terms using standpoint semantics, a refinement of the
philosophical idea of supervaluation semantics. Such definitions can be grounded in actual data by geometric analysis and segmentation of the data set. The issues
raised by this process with regard to the nature of boundaries and domains of logical quantification are discussed. We describe a prototype implementation of a system capable of segmenting attributed polygon data into geographically significant regions and evaluating queries involving vague geographic feature terms

### Semantic categories underlying the meaning of ‘place’

This paper analyses the semantics of natural language expressions that are associated with the intuitive notion of ‘place’. We note that the nature of such terms is highly contested, and suggest that this arises from two main considerations: 1) there are a number of logically
distinct categories of place expression, which are not always clearly distinguished in discourse about ‘place’; 2) the many non-substantive place count nouns (such as ‘place’, ‘region’, ‘area’, etc.) employed in natural
language are highly ambiguous. With respect to consideration 1), we propose that place-related expressions
should be classified into the following distinct logical types: a) ‘place-like’ count nouns (further subdivided into abstract, spatial and substantive varieties), b) proper names of ‘place-like’ objects, c) locative property phrases, and d) definite descriptions of ‘place-like’ objects. We outline possible formal representations for each of these. To address consideration 2), we examine meanings, connotations and ambiguities of the English vocabulary of abstract and generic place count nouns, and identify underlying elements of meaning, which explain both
similarities and differences in the sense and usage of the various terms

### The Initial Value Problem For Maximally Non-Local Actions

We study the initial value problem for actions which contain non-trivial
functions of integrals of local functions of the dynamical variable. In
contrast to many other non-local actions, the classical solution set of these
systems is at most discretely enlarged, and may even be restricted, with
respect to that of a local theory. We show that the solutions are those of a
local theory whose (spacetime constant) parameters vary with the initial value
data according to algebraic equations. The various roots of these algebraic
equations can be plausibly interpreted in quantum mechanics as different
components of a multi-component wave function. It is also possible that the
consistency of these algebraic equations imposes constraints upon the initial
value data which appear miraculous from the context of a local theory.Comment: 8 pages, LaTeX 2 epsilo

### A Closed-Form Expression for the Gravitational Radiation Rate from Cosmic Strings

We present a new formula for the rate at which cosmic strings lose energy
into gravitational radiation, valid for all piecewise-linear cosmic string
loops. At any time, such a loop is composed of $N$ straight segments, each of
which has constant velocity. Any cosmic string loop can be arbitrarily-well
approximated by a piecewise-linear loop with $N$ sufficiently large. The
formula is a sum of $O(N^4)$ polynomial and log terms, and is exact when the
effects of gravitational back-reaction are neglected. For a given loop, the
large number of terms makes evaluation ``by hand" impractical, but a computer
or symbolic manipulator yields accurate results. The formula is more accurate
and convenient than previous methods for finding the gravitational radiation
rate, which require numerical evaluation of a four-dimensional integral for
each term in an infinite sum. It also avoids the need to estimate the
contribution from the tail of the infinite sum. The formula has been tested
against all previously published radiation rates for different loop
configurations. In the cases where discrepancies were found, they were due to
errors in the published work. We have isolated and corrected both the analytic
and numerical errors in these cases. To assist future work in this area, a
small catalog of results for some simple loop shapes is provided.Comment: 29 pages TeX, 16 figures and computer C-code available via anonymous
ftp from directory pub/pcasper at alpha1.csd.uwm.edu, WISC-MILW-94-TH-10,
(section 7 has been expanded, two figures added, and minor grammatical
changes made.

### A method for estimating the rate of shedding of tags from yellowfin tuna

ENGLISH: The present paper describes a new method for estimating the shedding rate of tags. The method utilizes not only data on tagging and recovery of fish marked with two tags but also data from those marked with one. One important advantage of the new technique is that the estimates of the shedding rates are free from distortion caused by variations in fishing intensity during the total recovery period. The idea of this method appears to be implicit in a short note by Gulland (1963). This technique has been applied to the data obtained by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission in a tagging cruise off the west coast of southern Baja California, during June 1963, at which time both single and double-tagged yellowfin tuna were released. Details of the tagging procedure and equipment have been described by Fink (1965b). The results presented in the present paper are for yellowfin tuna tagged with dart tags. Estimates of shedding should be made separately for each species investigated and also for each type of tag used, since these rates may be variable and often unexpectedly high (Springer and McErlean 1961, Chadwick 1963).
SPANISH: El presente estudio describe un nuevo método para estimar las tasas del desprendimiento de marcas. El método emplea no solamente los datos sobre la marcación y recobro de peces marcados con dos marcas, pero también datos de los peces marcados con una marca. Una ventaja importante de la nueva técnica, es que las estimaciones de las tasas de desprendimiento son libres de alteración, causada por las variaciones en la intensidad de pesca durante el período total de recobro. La idea de este método parece ser implícita en un breve apunte por Gulland (1963). Esta técnica se ha aplicado a los datos obtenidos por la Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical, en un crucero de marcación efectuado frente a la costa occidental al sur de Baja California, en junio de 1963, tiempo en el cual fueron liberados atunes aleta amarilla marcados tanto con una como con dos marcas. Los detalles del procedimiento de la marcación y del equipo usado han sido descritos por Fink (1965b). Los resultados presentados en este estudio, pertenecen al atún aleta amarilla marcado con marcas de dardo. Las estimaciones del desprendimiento deben efectuarse separadamente para cada especie que ha sido investigada y también para cada tipo de marca usado, ya que estas tasas pueden ser vaiables, y a menudo inesperadamente altas (Springer y McErlean 1961, Chadwick 1963).
(PDF contains 20 pages.

### A method for estimating the rate of shedding of tags from yellowfin tuna

ENGLISH: The present paper describes a new method for estimating the shedding rate of tags. The method utilizes not only data on tagging and recovery of fish marked with two tags but also data from those marked with one. One important advantage of the new technique is that the estimates of the shedding rates are free from distortion caused by variations in fishing intensity during the total recovery period. The idea of this method appears to be implicit in a short note by Gulland (1963). This technique has been applied to the data obtained by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission in a tagging cruise off the west coast of southern Baja California, during June 1963, at which time both single and double-tagged yellowfin tuna were released. Details of the tagging procedure and equipment have been described by Fink (1965b). The results presented in the present paper are for yellowfin tuna tagged with dart tags. Estimates of shedding should be made separately for each species investigated and also for each type of tag used, since these rates may be variable and often unexpectedly high (Springer and McErlean 1961, Chadwick 1963).
SPANISH: El presente estudio describe un nuevo método para estimar las tasas del desprendimiento de marcas. El método emplea no solamente los datos sobre la marcación y recobro de peces marcados con dos marcas, pero también datos de los peces marcados con una marca. Una ventaja importante de la nueva técnica, es que las estimaciones de las tasas de desprendimiento son libres de alteración, causada por las variaciones en la intensidad de pesca durante el período total de recobro. La idea de este método parece ser implícita en un breve apunte por Gulland (1963). Esta técnica se ha aplicado a los datos obtenidos por la Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical, en un crucero de marcación efectuado frente a la costa occidental al sur de Baja California, en junio de 1963, tiempo en el cual fueron liberados atunes aleta amarilla marcados tanto con una como con dos marcas. Los detalles del procedimiento de la marcación y del equipo usado han sido descritos por Fink (1965b). Los resultados presentados en este estudio, pertenecen al atún aleta amarilla marcado con marcas de dardo. Las estimaciones del desprendimiento deben efectuarse separadamente para cada especie que ha sido investigada y también para cada tipo de marca usado, ya que estas tasas pueden ser vaiables, y a menudo inesperadamente altas (Springer y McErlean 1961, Chadwick 1963).
(PDF contains 20 pages.

### Building multiparticle states with teleportation

We describe a protocol which can be used to generate any N-partite pure
quantum state using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. This protocol employs
only local operations and classical communication between the N parties
(N-LOCC). In particular, we rely on quantum data compression and teleportation
to create the desired state. This protocol can be used to obtain upper bounds
for the bipartite entanglement of formation of an arbitrary N-partite pure
state, in the asymptotic limit of many copies. We apply it to a few
multipartite states of interest, showing that in some cases it is not optimal.
Generalizations of the protocol are developed which are optimal for some of the
examples we consider, but which may still be inefficient for arbitrary states.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure. Version 2 contains an example for which protocol
P3 is better than protocol P2. Correction to references in version

### The Parity Bit in Quantum Cryptography

An $n$-bit string is encoded as a sequence of non-orthogonal quantum states.
The parity bit of that $n$-bit string is described by one of two density
matrices, $\rho_0^{(n)}$ and $\rho_1^{(n)}$, both in a Hilbert space of
dimension $2^n$. In order to derive the parity bit the receiver must
distinguish between the two density matrices, e.g., in terms of optimal mutual
information. In this paper we find the measurement which provides the optimal
mutual information about the parity bit and calculate that information. We
prove that this information decreases exponentially with the length of the
string in the case where the single bit states are almost fully overlapping. We
believe this result will be useful in proving the ultimate security of quantum
crytography in the presence of noise.Comment: 19 pages, RevTe

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