3,463 research outputs found

### Neighbours of Einstein's Equations: Connections and Curvatures

Once the action for Einstein's equations is rewritten as a functional of an
SO(3,C) connection and a conformal factor of the metric, it admits a family of
``neighbours'' having the same number of degrees of freedom and a precisely
defined metric tensor. This paper analyzes the relation between the Riemann
tensor of that metric and the curvature tensor of the SO(3) connection. The
relation is in general very complicated. The Einstein case is distinguished by
the fact that two natural SO(3) metrics on the GL(3) fibers coincide. In the
general case the theory is bimetric on the fibers.Comment: 16 pages, LaTe

### SL(2,R) Yang-Mills theory on a circle

The kinematics of SL(2,R) Yang-Mills theory on a circle is considered, for
reasons that are spelled out. The gauge transformations exhibit hyperbolic
fixed points, and this results in a physical configuration space with a
non-Hausdorff "network" topology. The ambiguity encountered in canonical
quantization is then much more pronounced than in the compact case, and can not
be resolved through the kind of appeal made to group theory in that case.Comment: 10 pages, Goteborg ITP 94-19, Contains two files: A latex file with
all figures drawn in latex and a tar archive including a slightly modified
latex file (uses psfig) and nicer postscript figures+necessary macro

### Degenerate Sectors of the Ashtekar Gravity

This work completes the task of solving locally the Einstein-Ashtekar
equations for degenerate data. The two remaining degenerate sectors of the
classical 3+1 dimensional theory are considered. First, with all densitized
triad vectors linearly dependent and second, with only two independent ones. It
is shown how to solve the Einstein-Ashtekar equations completely by suitable
gauge fixing and choice of coordinates. Remarkably, the Hamiltonian weakly
Poisson commutes with the conditions defining the sectors. The summary of
degenerate solutions is given in the Appendix.Comment: 19 pages, late

### Degenerate Metric Phase Boundaries

The structure of boundaries between degenerate and nondegenerate solutions of
Ashtekar's canonical reformulation of Einstein's equations is studied. Several
examples are given of such "phase boundaries" in which the metric is degenerate
on one side of a null hypersurface and non-degenerate on the other side. These
include portions of flat space, Schwarzschild, and plane wave solutions joined
to degenerate regions. In the last case, the wave collides with a planar phase
boundary and continues on with the same curvature but degenerate triad, while
the phase boundary continues in the opposite direction. We conjecture that
degenerate phase boundaries are always null.Comment: 16 pages, 2 figures; erratum included in separate file: errors in
section 4, degenerate phase boundary is null without imposing field equation

### A trick for passing degenerate points in Ashtekar formulation

We examine one of the advantages of Ashtekar's formulation of general
relativity: a tractability of degenerate points from the point of view of
following the dynamics of classical spacetime. Assuming that all dynamical
variables are finite, we conclude that an essential trick for such a continuous
evolution is in complexifying variables. In order to restrict the complex
region locally, we propose some `reality recovering' conditions on spacetime.
Using a degenerate solution derived by pull-back technique, and integrating the
dynamical equations numerically, we show that this idea works in an actual
dynamical problem. We also discuss some features of these applications.Comment: 9 pages by RevTeX or 16 pages by LaTeX, 3 eps figures and epsf-style
file are include

### Causal structure and degenerate phase boundaries

Timelike and null hypersurfaces in the degenerate space-times in the Ashtekar
theory are defined in the light of the degenerate causal structure proposed by
Matschull. Using the new definition of null hypersufaces, the conjecture that
the "phase boundary" separating the degenerate space-time region from the
non-degenerate one in Ashtekar's gravity is always null is proved under certain
circumstances.Comment: 13 pages, Revte

### Probability-based comparison of quantum states

We address the following state comparison problem: is it possible to design
an experiment enabling us to unambiguously decide (based on the observed
outcome statistics) on the sameness or difference of two unknown state
preparations without revealing complete information about the states? We find
that the claim "the same" can never be concluded without any doubts unless the
information is complete. Moreover, we prove that a universal comparison (that
perfectly distinguishes all states) also requires complete information about
the states. Nevertheless, for some measurements, the probability distribution
of outcomes still allows one to make an unambiguous conclusion regarding the
difference between the states even in the case of incomplete information. We
analyze an efficiency of such a comparison of qudit states when it is based on
the SWAP-measurement. For qubit states, we consider in detail the performance
of special families of two-valued measurements enabling us to successfully
compare at most half of the pairs of states. Finally, we introduce almost
universal comparison measurements which can distinguish almost all
non-identical states (up to a set of measure zero). The explicit form of such
measurements with two and more outcomes is found in any dimension.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, 1 table, some results are extende

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### The prediction of extratropical storm tracks by the ECMWF and NCEP ensemble prediction systems

The prediction of extratropical cyclones by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS) has been investigated using an objective feature tracking methodology to identify and track the cyclones along the forecast trajectories. Overall the results show that the ECMWF EPS has a slightly higher level of skill than the NCEP EPS in the northern hemisphere (NH). However in the southern hemisphere (SH), NCEP has higher predictive skill than ECMWF for the intensity of the cyclones. The results from both EPS indicate a higher level of predictive skill for the position of extratropical cyclones than their intensity and show that there is a larger spread in intensity than position. Further analysis shows that the predicted propagation speed of cyclones is generally too slow for the ECMWF EPS and show a slight bias for the intensity of the cyclones to be overpredicted. This is also true for the NCEP EPS in the SH. For the NCEP EPS in the NH the intensity of the cyclones is underpredicted. There is small bias in both the EPS for the cyclones to be displaced towards the poles. For each ensemble forecast of each cyclone, the predictive skill of the ensemble member that best predicts the cyclones position and intensity was computed. The results are very encouraging showing that the predictive skill of the best ensemble member is significantly higher than that of the control forecast in terms of both the position and intensity of the cyclones. The prediction of cyclones before they are identified as 850 hPa vorticity centers in the analysis cycle was also considered. It is shown that an indication of extratropical cyclones can be given by at least 1 ensemble member 7 days before they are identified in the analysis. Further analysis of the ECMWF EPS shows that the ensemble mean has a higher level of skill than the control forecast, particularly for the intensity of the cyclones, 2 from day 3 of the forecast. There is a higher level of skill in the NH than the SH and the spread in the SH is correspondingly larger. The difference between the ensemble mean and spread is very small for the position of the cyclones, but the spread of the ensemble is smaller than the ensemble mean error for the intensity of the cyclones in both hemispheres. Results also show that the ECMWF control forecast has Â˝ to 1 day more skill than the perturbed members, for both the position and intensity of the cyclones, throughout the forecast

### Collapse of the quantum correlation hierarchy links entropic uncertainty to entanglement creation

Quantum correlations have fundamental and technological interest, and hence
many measures have been introduced to quantify them. Some hierarchical
orderings of these measures have been established, e.g., discord is bigger than
entanglement, and we present a class of bipartite states, called premeasurement
states, for which several of these hierarchies collapse to a single value.
Because premeasurement states are the kind of states produced when a system
interacts with a measurement device, the hierarchy collapse implies that the
uncertainty of an observable is quantitatively connected to the quantum
correlations (entanglement, discord, etc.) produced when that observable is
measured. This fascinating connection between uncertainty and quantum
correlations leads to a reinterpretation of entropic formulations of the
uncertainty principle, so-called entropic uncertainty relations, including ones
that allow for quantum memory. These relations can be thought of as
lower-bounds on the entanglement created when incompatible observables are
measured. Hence, we find that entanglement creation exhibits complementarity, a
concept that should encourage exploration into "entanglement complementarity
relations".Comment: 19 pages, 2 figures. Added Figure 1 and various remarks to improve
clarity of presentatio

### A study of separability criteria for mixed three-qubit states

We study the noisy GHZ-W mixture. We demonstrate some necessary but not
sufficient criteria for different classes of separability of these states. It
turns out that the partial transposition criterion of Peres and the criteria of
G\"uhne and Seevinck dealing with matrix elements are the strongest ones for
different separability classes of this 2 parameter state. As a new result we
determine a set of entangled states of positive partial transpose.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, PRA styl

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