148 research outputs found

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    Title Onlyhttps://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/cht-sheet-music/12730/thumbnail.jp

    The RNA Binding Protein SAM68 Transiently Localizes in the Chromatoid Body of Male Germ Cells and Influences Expression of Select MicroRNAs

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    The chromatoid body (CB) is a unique structure of male germ cells composed of thin filaments that condense into a perinuclear organelle after meiosis. Due to the presence of proteins involved in different steps of RNA metabolism and of different classes of RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), the CB has been recently suggested to function as an RNA processing centre. Herein, we show that the RNA binding protein SAM68 transiently localizes in the CB, in concomitance with the meiotic divisions of mouse spermatocytes. Precise staging of the seminiferous tubules and co-localization studies with MVH and MILI, two well recognized CB markers, documented that SAM68 transiently associates with the CB in secondary spermatocytes and early round spermatids. Furthermore, although SAM68 co-immunoprecipitated with MVH in secondary spermatocytes, its ablation did not affect the proper localization of MVH in the CB. On the other hand, ablation of the CB constitutive component MIWI did not impair association of SAM68 with the CB. Isolation of CBs from Sam68 wild type and knockout mouse testes and comparison of their protein content by mass spectrometry indicated that Sam68 ablation did not cause overall alterations in the CB proteome. Lastly, we found that SAM68 interacts with DROSHA and DICER in secondary spermatocytes and early round spermatids and that a subset of miRNAs were altered in Sam68−/−germ cells. These results suggest a novel role for SAM68 in the miRNA pathway during spermatogenesis

    Cancer research across Africa: a comparative bibliometric analysis.

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    INTRODUCTION: Research is a critical pillar in national cancer control planning. However, there is a dearth of evidence for countries to implement affordable strategies. The WHO and various Commissions have recommended developing stakeholder-based needs assessments based on objective data to generate evidence to inform national and regional prioritisation of cancer research needs and goals. METHODOLOGY: Bibliometric algorithms (macros) were developed and validated to assess cancer research outputs of all 54 African countries over a 12-year period (2009-2020). Subanalysis included collaboration patterns, site and domain-specific focus of research and understanding authorship dynamics by both position and sex. Detailed subanalysis was performed to understand multiple impact metrics and context relative outputs in comparison with the disease burden as well as the application of a funding thesaurus to determine funding resources. RESULTS: African countries in total published 23 679 cancer research papers over the 12-year period (2009-2020) with the fractional African contribution totalling 16 201 papers and the remaining 7478 from authors from out with the continent. The total number of papers increased rapidly with time, with an annual growth rate of 15%. The 49 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries together published just 5281 papers, of which South Africa's contribution was 2206 (42% of the SSA total, 14% of all Africa) and Nigeria's contribution was 997 (19% of the SSA total, 4% of all Africa). Cancer research accounted for 7.9% of all African biomedical research outputs (African research in infectious diseases was 5.1 times than that of cancer research). Research outputs that are proportionally low relative to their burden across Africa are paediatric, cervical, oesophageal and prostate cancer. African research mirrored that of Western countries in terms of its focus on discovery science and pharmaceutical research. The percentages of female researchers in Africa were comparable with those elsewhere, but only in North African and some Anglophone countries. CONCLUSIONS: There is an imbalance in relevant local research generation on the continent and cancer control efforts. The recommendations articulated in our five-point plan arising from these data are broadly focused on structural changes, for example, overt inclusion of research into national cancer control planning and financial, for example, for countries to spend 10% of a notional 1% gross domestic expenditure on research and development on cancer

    Software for the frontiers of quantum chemistry:An overview of developments in the Q-Chem 5 package

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    This article summarizes technical advances contained in the fifth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program package, covering developments since 2015. A comprehensive library of exchange–correlation functionals, along with a suite of correlated many-body methods, continues to be a hallmark of the Q-Chem software. The many-body methods include novel variants of both coupled-cluster and configuration-interaction approaches along with methods based on the algebraic diagrammatic construction and variational reduced density-matrix methods. Methods highlighted in Q-Chem 5 include a suite of tools for modeling core-level spectroscopy, methods for describing metastable resonances, methods for computing vibronic spectra, the nuclear–electronic orbital method, and several different energy decomposition analysis techniques. High-performance capabilities including multithreaded parallelism and support for calculations on graphics processing units are described. Q-Chem boasts a community of well over 100 active academic developers, and the continuing evolution of the software is supported by an “open teamware” model and an increasingly modular design

    Searching for High-energy Neutrino Emission from Galaxy Clusters with IceCube

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    Galaxy clusters have the potential to accelerate cosmic rays (CRs) to ultrahigh energies via accretion shocks or embedded CR acceleration sites. The CRs with energies below the Hillas condition will be confined within the cluster and eventually interact with the intracluster medium gas to produce secondary neutrinos and gamma rays. Using 9.5 yr of muon neutrino track events from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we report the results of a stacking analysis of 1094 galaxy clusters with masses ≳1014^{14} M⊙ and redshifts between 0.01 and ∌1 detected by the Planck mission via the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect. We find no evidence for significant neutrino emission and report upper limits on the cumulative unresolved neutrino flux from massive galaxy clusters after accounting for the completeness of the catalog up to a redshift of 2, assuming three different weighting scenarios for the stacking and three different power-law spectra. Weighting the sources according to mass and distance, we set upper limits at a 90% confidence level that constrain the flux of neutrinos from massive galaxy clusters (≳1014^{14} M⊙) to be no more than 4.6% of the diffuse IceCube observations at 100 TeV, assuming an unbroken E−2.5^{2.5} power-law spectrum

    Recent advances quantifying the large wood dynamics in river basins: New methods and remaining challenges

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    Citation: Ruiz-Villanueva, V., Piégay, H., Gurnell, A. A., Marston, R. A., & Stoffel, M. (2016). Recent advances quantifying the large wood dynamics in river basins: New methods and remaining challenges. Reviews of Geophysics. doi:10.1002/2015RG000514Large wood is an important physical component of woodland rivers and significantly influences river morphology. It is also a key component of stream ecosystems. However, large wood is also a source of risk for human activities as it may damage infrastructure, block river channels, and induce flooding. Therefore, the analysis and quantification of large wood and its mobility are crucial for understanding and managing wood in rivers. As the amount of large-wood-related studies by researchers, river managers, and stakeholders increases, documentation of commonly used and newly available techniques and their effectiveness has also become increasingly relevant as well. Important data and knowledge have been obtained from the application of very different approaches and have generated a significant body of valuable information representative of different environments. This review brings a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative summary of recent advances regarding the different processes involved in large wood dynamics in fluvial systems including wood budgeting and wood mechanics. First, some key definitions and concepts are introduced. Second, advances in quantifying large wood dynamics are reviewed; in particular, how measurements and modeling can be combined to integrate our understanding of how large wood moves through and is retained within river systems. Throughout, we present a quantitative and integrated meta-analysis compiled from different studies and geographical regions. Finally, we conclude by highlighting areas of particular research importance and their likely future trajectories, and we consider a particularly underresearched area so as to stress the future challenges for large wood research. ©2016. American Geophysical Union

    Jules Romains' Vision of a United Europe in Interwar France: Legacy and Ambiguities

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    The interwar period in Europe was characterised by a multi-faceted movement in favour of European integration. After the slaughter of the First World War, many intellectuals, writers, industrialists and politicians brought the idea of European unity to the fore and engaged in various actions, from setting up organisations to lobbying governments, to promote the unification of Europe. Much research has been carried out on the leading figures of these pro-European activities but amongst the wealth of this period other actors have tended to be forgotten. Such is the case with the French writer Jules Romains, who not only coined “Europeanism”, the word that would define the whole movement in favour of Europe, but who also actively participated in promoting a united Europe. This article seeks to introduce and discuss Romains’ ideas on Europe. It will demonstrate that his vision was very coherent within the framework of his Unanimist philosophy but was undermined by serious ambiguities. It will also demonstrate that his ideas are of great interest for what they reveal about the interwar period in France and Europe, what they bring to the genealogy of the European project, as set up after the Second World War, and for the ambiguities at the core of his concept of Europe, which are still very much at the heart of many of today’s debates about the European Union