29 research outputs found

### Better short-seed quantum-proof extractors

We construct a strong extractor against quantum storage that works for every
min-entropy $k$, has logarithmic seed length, and outputs $\Omega(k)$ bits,
provided that the quantum adversary has at most $\beta k$ qubits of memory, for
any \beta < \half. The construction works by first condensing the source
(with minimal entropy-loss) and then applying an extractor that works well
against quantum adversaries when the source is close to uniform.
We also obtain an improved construction of a strong quantum-proof extractor
in the high min-entropy regime. Specifically, we construct an extractor that
uses a logarithmic seed length and extracts $\Omega(n)$ bits from any source
over \B^n, provided that the min-entropy of the source conditioned on the
quantum adversary's state is at least $(1-\beta) n$, for any \beta < \half.Comment: 14 page

### A Hypercontractive Inequality for Matrix-Valued Functions with Applications to Quantum Computing and LDCs

The Bonami-Beckner hypercontractive inequality is a powerful tool in Fourier
analysis of real-valued functions on the Boolean cube. In this paper we present
a version of this inequality for matrix-valued functions on the Boolean cube.
Its proof is based on a powerful inequality by Ball, Carlen, and Lieb. We also
present a number of applications. First, we analyze maps that encode $n$
classical bits into $m$ qubits, in such a way that each set of $k$ bits can be
recovered with some probability by an appropriate measurement on the quantum
encoding; we show that if $m<0.7 n$, then the success probability is
exponentially small in $k$. This result may be viewed as a direct product
version of Nayak's quantum random access code bound. It in turn implies strong
direct product theorems for the one-way quantum communication complexity of
Disjointness and other problems. Second, we prove that error-correcting codes
that are locally decodable with 2 queries require length exponential in the
length of the encoded string. This gives what is arguably the first
``non-quantum'' proof of a result originally derived by Kerenidis and de Wolf
using quantum information theory, and answers a question by Trevisan.Comment: This is the full version of a paper that will appear in the
proceedings of the IEEE FOCS 08 conferenc

### Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions

In their seminal work, Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman (STOC\u2716) constructed a two-source extractor with error epsilon for n-bit sources having min-entropy {polylog}(n/epsilon). Unfortunately, the construction\u27s running-time is {poly}(n/epsilon), which means that with polynomial-time constructions, only polynomially-small errors are possible. Our main result is a {poly}(n,log(1/epsilon))-time computable two-source condenser. For any k >= {polylog}(n/epsilon), our condenser transforms two independent (n,k)-sources to a distribution over m = k-O(log(1/epsilon)) bits that is epsilon-close to having min-entropy m - o(log(1/epsilon)). Hence, achieving entropy gap of o(log(1/epsilon)).
The bottleneck for obtaining low error in recent constructions of two-source extractors lies in the use of resilient functions. Informally, this is a function that receives input bits from r players with the property that the function\u27s output has small bias even if a bounded number of corrupted players feed adversarial inputs after seeing the inputs of the other players. The drawback of using resilient functions is that the error cannot be smaller than ln r/r. This, in return, forces the running time of the construction to be polynomial in 1/epsilon.
A key component in our construction is a variant of resilient functions which we call entropy-resilient functions. This variant can be seen as playing the above game for several rounds, each round outputting one bit. The goal of the corrupted players is to reduce, with as high probability as they can, the min-entropy accumulated throughout the rounds. We show that while the bias decreases only polynomially with the number of players in a one-round game, their success probability decreases exponentially in the entropy gap they are attempting to incur in a repeated game

### A New Approach for Constructing Low-Error, Two-Source Extractors

Our main contribution in this paper is a new reduction from explicit two-source extractors for polynomially-small entropy rate and negligible error to explicit t-non-malleable extractors with seed-length that has a good dependence on t. Our reduction is based on the Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman framework (STOC 2016), and surprisingly we dispense with the use of resilient functions which appeared to be a major ingredient there and in follow-up works. The use of resilient functions posed a fundamental barrier towards achieving negligible error, and our new reduction circumvents this bottleneck.
The parameters we require from t-non-malleable extractors for our reduction to work hold in a non-explicit construction, but currently it is not known how to explicitly construct such extractors. As a result we do not give an unconditional construction of an explicit low-error two-source extractor. Nonetheless, we believe our work gives a viable approach for solving the important problem of low-error two-source extractors. Furthermore, our work highlights an existing barrier in constructing low-error two-source extractors, and draws attention to the dependence of the parameter t in the seed-length of the non-malleable extractor. We hope this work would lead to further developments in explicit constructions of both non-malleable and two-source extractors

### Extractors for Adversarial Sources via Extremal Hypergraphs

Randomness extraction is a fundamental problem that has been studied for over three decades. A well-studied setting assumes that one has access to multiple independent weak random sources, each with some entropy. However, this assumption is often unrealistic in practice. In real life, natural sources of randomness can produce samples with no entropy at all or with unwanted dependence. Motivated by this and applications from cryptography, we initiate a systematic study of randomness extraction for the class of adversarial sources defined as follows.
A weak source $\mathbf{X}$ of the form $\mathbf{X}_1,...,\mathbf{X}_N$, where each $\mathbf{X}_i$ is on $n$ bits, is an $(N,K,n,k)$-source of locality $d$ if the following hold:
(1) Somewhere good sources: at least $K$ of the $\mathbf{X}_i$\u27s are independent, and each contains min-entropy at least $k$. We call these $\mathbf{X}_i$\u27s good sources, and their locations are unknown. (2) Bounded dependence: each remaining (bad) source can depend arbitrarily on at most $d$ good sources.
We focus on constructing extractors with negligible error, in the regime where most of the entropy is contained within a few sources instead of across many (i.e., $k$ is at least polynomial in $K$). In this setting, even for the case of $0$-locality, very little is known prior to our work. For $d \geq 1$, essentially no previous results are known. We present various new extractors for adversarial sources in a wide range of parameters, and some of our constructions work for locality $d = K^{\Omega(1)}$. As an application, we also give improved extractors for small-space sources.
The class of adversarial sources generalizes several previously studied classes of sources, and our explicit extractor constructions exploit tools from recent advances in extractor machinery, such as two-source non-malleable extractors and low-error condensers. Thus, our constructions can be viewed as a new application of non-malleable extractors. In addition, our constructions combine the tools from extractor theory in a novel way through various sorts of explicit extremal hypergraphs. These connections leverage recent progress in combinatorics, such as improved bounds on cap sets and explicit constructions of Ramsey graphs, and may be of independent interest