50 research outputs found

    PRACTICE OF CAD AND CAE DESIGN IN THE FIELD OF PLASMA TECHNOLOGIES

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    The effectiveness of automated plasma torch design methods can be improved by integrating design and engineering analysis technologies. The features of CAD and CAE technologies for designing plasma torches are considered. Shows examples of the design of plasma torches for cutting metals and waste treatment with the use of digital technologies.Эффективность автоматизированных методов проектирования плазмотронов можно повысить за счет интеграции технологий проектирования и инженерного анализа. Рассмотрены особенности CAD и CAE технологий проектирования плазмотронов. Показаны примеры проектирования плазмотронов для резки металлов и обезвреживания отходов с применением цифровых технологий

    Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Mixed Alkyl Aryl Phosphonates

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    Copper-catalysis allows the direct oxygen-arylation of dialkyl phosphonates with diaryliodonium salts. This novel methodology proceeds with a wide range of phosphonates and phosphoramidates under mild conditions and gives straightforward access to valuable mixed alkyl aryl phosphonates in very good yields and near perfect selectivity

    Coupled Rotary Motion in Molecular Motors

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    Biological molecular machines play a pivotal role in sustaining life by producing a controlled and directional motion. Artificial molecular machines aim to mimic this motion, to exploit and tune the nanoscale produced motion to power dynamic molecular systems. The precise control, transfer, and amplification of the molecular-level motion is crucial to harness the potential of synthetic molecular motors. It is intriguing to establish how directional motor rotation can be utilized to drive secondary motions in other subunits of a multicomponent molecular machine. The challenge to design sophisticated synthetic machines involving multiple motorized elements presents fascinating opportunities for achieving unprecedented functions, but these remain almost unexplored due to their extremely intricate behavior. Here we show intrinsic coupled rotary motion in light-driven overcrowded-alkene based molecular motors. Thus far, molecular motors with two rotors have been understood to undergo independent rotation of each subunit. The new bridged-isoindigo motor design revealed an additional dimension to the motor’s unidirectional operation mechanism where communication between the rotors occurs. An unprecedented double metastable state intermediate bridges the rotation cycles of the two rotor subunits. Our findings demonstrate how neighboring motorized subunits can affect each other and thereby drastically change the motor’s functioning. Controlling the embedded entanglement of active intramolecular components sets the stage for more advanced artificial molecular machines

    Coupled Rotary Motion in Molecular Motors

    No full text
    Biological molecular machines play a pivotal role in sustaining life by producing a controlled and directional motion. Artificial molecular machines aim to mimic this motion, to exploit and tune the nanoscale produced motion to power dynamic molecular systems. The precise control, transfer, and amplification of the molecular-level motion is crucial to harness the potential of synthetic molecular motors. It is intriguing to establish how directional motor rotation can be utilized to drive secondary motions in other subunits of a multicomponent molecular machine. The challenge to design sophisticated synthetic machines involving multiple motorized elements presents fascinating opportunities for achieving unprecedented functions, but these remain almost unexplored due to their extremely intricate behavior. Here we show intrinsic coupled rotary motion in light-driven overcrowded-alkene based molecular motors. Thus far, molecular motors with two rotors have been understood to undergo independent rotation of each subunit. The new bridged-isoindigo motor design revealed an additional dimension to the motor’s unidirectional operation mechanism where communication between the rotors occurs. An unprecedented double metastable state intermediate bridges the rotation cycles of the two rotor subunits. Our findings demonstrate how neighboring motorized subunits can affect each other and thereby drastically change the motor’s functioning. Controlling the embedded entanglement of active intramolecular components sets the stage for more advanced artificial molecular machines

    Coupled Rotary Motion in Molecular Motors

    No full text
    Biological molecular machines play a pivotal role in sustaining life by producing a controlled and directional motion. Artificial molecular machines aim to mimic this motion, to exploit and tune the nanoscale produced motion to power dynamic molecular systems. The precise control, transfer, and amplification of the molecular-level motion is crucial to harness the potential of synthetic molecular motors. It is intriguing to establish how directional motor rotation can be utilized to drive secondary motions in other subunits of a multicomponent molecular machine. The challenge to design sophisticated synthetic machines involving multiple motorized elements presents fascinating opportunities for achieving unprecedented functions, but these remain almost unexplored due to their extremely intricate behavior. Here we show intrinsic coupled rotary motion in light-driven overcrowded-alkene based molecular motors. Thus far, molecular motors with two rotors have been understood to undergo independent rotation of each subunit. The new bridged-isoindigo motor design revealed an additional dimension to the motor’s unidirectional operation mechanism where communication between the rotors occurs. An unprecedented double metastable state intermediate bridges the rotation cycles of the two rotor subunits. Our findings demonstrate how neighboring motorized subunits can affect each other and thereby drastically change the motor’s functioning. Controlling the embedded entanglement of active intramolecular components sets the stage for more advanced artificial molecular machines

    Design, Synthesis, and Isomerization Studies of Light-Driven Molecular Motors for Single Molecular Imaging

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    The design of a multicomponent system that aims at the direct visualization of a synthetic rotary motor at the single molecule level on surfaces is presented. The synthesis of two functional motors enabling photochemical rotation and fluorescent detection is described. The light-driven molecular motor is found to operate in the presence of a fluorescent tag if a rigid long rod (32 Å) is installed between both photoactive moieties. The photochemical isomerization and subsequent thermal helix inversion steps are confirmed by <sup>1</sup>H NMR and UV–vis absorption spectroscopies. In addition, the tetra-acid functioned motor can be successfully grafted onto amine-coated quartz and it is shown that the light responsive rotary motion on surfaces is preserved

    Asymmetric Conjugate Addition of Grignard Reagents to Pyranones

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    An efficient enantioselective synthesis of lactones was developed based on the catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA) of alkyl Grignard reagents to pyranones. The use of 2<i>H</i>-pyran-2-one for the first time in the ACA with Grignard reagents allows for a variety of further transformations to access highly versatile building blocks such as β-alkyl substituted aldehydes or β-bromo-γ-alkyl substituted alcohols with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity

    Structural Dynamics of Overcrowded Alkene-Based Molecular Motors during Thermal Isomerization

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    Synthetic light-driven rotary molecular motors show complicated structural dynamics during the rotation process. A combination of DFT calculations and various spectroscopic techniques is employed to study the effect of the bridging group in the lower half of the molecule on the conformational dynamics. It was found that the extent to which the bridging group can accommodate the increased folding in the transition state is the main factor in rationalizing the differences in barrier height and, as a consequence, the rotary speed. These findings will be essential in designing future rotary molecular motors

    Enantioselective Synthesis of Di- and Tri-Arylated All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters via Copper-Catalyzed Allylic Arylations with Organolithium Compounds

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    The highly enantioselective copper­(I)/N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed synthesis of di- and triarylated all-carbon quaternary stereocenters via asymmetric allylic arylation (AAAr) with aryl organolithium compounds is demonstrated. The use of readily available or easily accessible aryl organolithium reagents in combination with trisubstituted allyl bromides, in the presence of a copper/NHC catalyst, affords important di- and triarylated all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in good yields and enantioselectivities. This method tolerates a wide range of alkyl and substituted aryl groups in the starting allyl bromides, including less common biaryl moieties, which, in combination with diverse organolithium reagents, delivers a broad scope of products in an operationally straightforward and efficient manner

    Effect of Immobilization on Gold on the Temperature Dependence of Photochromic Switching of Dithienylethenes

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    We report the properties and switching characteristics of a series of dithienylethene photochromic switches immobilized on gold. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three structurally related dithienylethenes were formed on roughened gold bead substrates and studied by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). These data were compared to SERS spectra obtained by aggregation of colloidal gold, solid state Raman spectra, and Raman spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Two of the dithienylethenes studied have an “asymmetric” design, which was demonstrated earlier to lower the thermal barrier for photochemical ring opening in solution. Herein, we show that, when immobilized on a gold surface, the asymmetric dithienylethenes in fact display a higher thermal barrier than that of their symmetric counterparts. In addition, we show that photochemical ring closing of asymmetric dithienylethenes is inhibited when immobilized on gold
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