91,420 research outputs found

    Comment on "Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities"

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    The statement of E.R. Loubenets, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042102 (2004), that separable states can violate classical probabilistic constraints is based on a misleading definition of classicality, which is much narrower than Bell's concept of local hidden variables. In a Bell type setting the notion of classicality used by Loubenets corresponds to the assumption of perfect correlations if the same observable is measured on both sides. While it is obvious that most separable states do not satisfy this assumption, this does not constitute "non-classical" behaviour in any usual sense of the word.Comment: 1 page, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Monogamy of Bell's inequality violations in non-signaling theories

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    We derive monogamy relations (tradeoffs) between strengths of violations of Bell's inequalities from the non-signaling condition. Our result applies to general Bell inequalities with an arbitrary large number of partners, outcomes and measurement settings. The method is simple, efficient and does not require linear programming. The results are used to derive optimal fidelity for asymmetric cloning in nonsignaling theories.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, published versio

    Not throwing out the baby with the bathwater: Bell's condition of local causality mathematically 'sharp and clean'

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    The starting point of the present paper is Bell's notion of local causality and his own sharpening of it so as to provide for mathematical formalisation. Starting with Norsen's (2007, 2009) analysis of this formalisation, it is subjected to a critique that reveals two crucial aspects that have so far not been properly taken into account. These are (i) the correct understanding of the notions of sufficiency, completeness and redundancy involved; and (ii) the fact that the apparatus settings and measurement outcomes have very different theoretical roles in the candidate theories under study. Both aspects are not adequately incorporated in the standard formalisation, and we will therefore do so. The upshot of our analysis is a more detailed, sharp and clean mathematical expression of the condition of local causality. A preliminary analysis of the repercussions of our proposal shows that it is able to locate exactly where and how the notions of locality and causality are involved in formalising Bell's condition of local causality.Comment: 14 pages. To be published in PSE volume "Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation", edited by Dieks, et a

    Bell's theorem as a signature of nonlocality: a classical counterexample

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    For a system composed of two particles Bell's theorem asserts that averages of physical quantities determined from local variables must conform to a family of inequalities. In this work we show that a classical model containing a local probabilistic interaction in the measurement process can lead to a violation of the Bell inequalities. We first introduce two-particle phase-space distributions in classical mechanics constructed to be the analogs of quantum mechanical angular momentum eigenstates. These distributions are then employed in four schemes characterized by different types of detectors measuring the angular momenta. When the model includes an interaction between the detector and the measured particle leading to ensemble dependencies, the relevant Bell inequalities are violated if total angular momentum is required to be conserved. The violation is explained by identifying assumptions made in the derivation of Bell's theorem that are not fulfilled by the model. These assumptions will be argued to be too restrictive to see in the violation of the Bell inequalities a faithful signature of nonlocality.Comment: Extended manuscript. Significant change

    Correlation functions, Bell's inequalities and the fundamental conservation laws

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    I derive the correlation function for a general theory of two-valued spin variables that satisfy the fundamental conservation law of angular momentum. The unique theory-independent correlation function is identical to the quantum mechanical correlation function. I prove that any theory of correlations of such discrete variables satisfying the fundamental conservation law of angular momentum violates the Bell's inequalities. Taken together with the Bell's theorem, this result has far reaching implications. No theory satisfying Einstein locality, reality in the EPR-Bell sense, and the validity of the conservation law can be constructed. Therefore, all local hidden variable theories are incompatible with fundamental symmetries and conservation laws. Bell's inequalities can be obeyed only by violating a conservation law. The implications for experiments on Bell's inequalities are obvious. The result provides new insight regarding entanglement, and its measures.Comment: LaTeX, 12pt, 11 pages, 2 figure

    Evidence for heat losses via party wall cavities in masonry construction

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    This paper presents empirical evidence and analysis that supports the existence of a significant heat loss mechanism resulting from air movement through cavities in party walls in masonry construction. A range of heat loss experiments were undertaken as part of the Stamford Brook housing field trial in Altrincham in the United Kingdom. Co-heating tests showed a large discrepancy between the predicted and measured whole house heat loss coefficients. Analysis of the co-heating results, along with internal temperature data, thermal imaging and a theoretical analysis indicated that the most likely explanation for the discrepancy was bypassing of the thermal insulation via the uninsulated party wall cavities. The data show that such a bypass mechanism is potentially the largest single contributor to heat loss in terraced dwellings built to the 2006 revision of the Building Regulations. A comparable convective heat bypass associated with masonry party walls was identified in the late 1970s during the course of the Twin Rivers Project in the United States, albeit in a somewhat different construction from that used at Stamford Brook. A similar effect was also reported in the United Kingdom in the mid 1990s. However, it appears that no action was taken at that time either to confirm the results, to develop any technical solutions, or to amend standards for calculating heat losses from buildings. Current conventions for heat loss calculations in the United Kingdom do not take account of heat losses associated with party walls and it is suggested by the authors that such conventions may need to be updated to take account of the effect described in this paper. In the final part of the paper, the authors propose straightforward solutions to prevent bypassing of roof insulation via party walls by for example filling the cavity of the party wall with mineral fibre insulation, or by inserting a cavity closer across the cavity in the plane of the roof insulation.Practical application: The heat bypass mechanism described in this paper is believed by the authors to contribute to a significant proportion of heat loss from buildings in the UK constructed with clear cavities such as those found in separating walls between cavity masonry dwellings. It is proposed that relatively simple design changes could be undertaken to eliminate such heat loss pathways from new buildings. In addition, simple and cost effective measures are envisaged that could be used to minimise or eliminate the bypass from existing buildings. Such an approach could give rise to a significant reduction in carbon emissions from UK housing

    Loophole-free test of quantum non-locality using high-efficiency homodyne detectors

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    We provide a detailed analysis of the recently proposed setup for a loophole-free test of Bell inequality using conditionally generated non-Gaussian states of light and balanced homodyning. In the proposed scheme, a two-mode squeezed vacuum state is de-gaussified by subtracting a single photon from each mode with the use of an unbalanced beam splitter and a standard low-efficiency single-photon detector. We thoroughly discuss the dependence of the achievable Bell violation on the various relevant experimental parameters such as the detector efficiencies, the electronic noise and the mixedness of the initial Gaussian state. We also consider several alternative schemes involving squeezed states, linear optical elements, conditional photon subtraction and homodyne detection.Comment: 13 pages, 14 figures, RevTeX
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