1,068 research outputs found

    Are there hyperentropic objects ?

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    By treating the Hawking radiation as a system in thermal equilibrium, Marolf and R. Sorkin have argued that hyperentropic objects (those violating the entropy bounds) would be emitted profusely with the radiation, thus opening a loophole in black hole based arguments for such entropy bounds. We demonstrate, on kinetic grounds, that hyperentropic objects could only be formed extremely slowly, and so would be rare in the Hawking radiance, thus contributing negligibly to its entropy. The arguments based on the generalized second law of thermodynamics then rule out weakly self-gravitating hyperentropic objects and a class of strongly self-gravitating ones.Comment: LaTeX, 4 page

    How does the entropy/information bound work ?

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    According to the universal entropy bound, the entropy (and hence information capacity) of a complete weakly self-gravitating physical system can be bounded exclusively in terms of its circumscribing radius and total gravitating energy. The bound's correctness is supported by explicit statistical calculations of entropy, gedanken experiments involving the generalized second law, and Bousso's covariant holographic bound. On the other hand, it is not always obvious in a particular example how the system avoids having too many states for given energy, and hence violating the bound. We analyze in detail several purported counterexamples of this type (involving systems made of massive particles, systems at low temperature, systems with high degeneracy of the lowest excited states, systems with degenerate ground states, or involving a particle spectrum with proliferation of nearly massless species), and exhibit in each case the mechanism behind the bound's efficacy.Comment: LaTeX, 10 pages. Contribution to the special issue of Foundation of Physics in honor of Asher Peres; C. Fuchs and A. van der Merwe, ed

    Entropy Bounds and Black Hole Remnants

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    We rederive the universal bound on entropy with the help of black holes while allowing for Unruh--Wald buoyancy. We consider a box full of entropy lowered towards and then dropped into a Reissner--Nordstr\"om black hole in equilibrium with thermal radiation. We avoid the approximation that the buoyant pressure varies slowly across the box, and compute the buoyant force exactly. We find, in agreement with independent investigations, that the neutral point generically lies very near the horizon. A consequence is that in the generic case, the Unruh--Wald entropy restriction is neither necessary nor sufficient for enforcement of the generalized second law. Another consequence is that generically the buoyancy makes only a negligible contribution to the energy bookeeping, so that the original entropy bound is recovered if the generalized second law is assumed to hold. The number of particle species does not figure in the entropy bound, a point that has caused some perplexity. We demonstrate by explicit calculation that, for arbitrarily large number of particle species, the bound is indeed satisfied by cavity thermal radiation in the thermodynamic regime, provided vacuum energies are included. We also show directly that thermal radiation in a cavity in DD dimensional space also respects the bound regardless of the value of DD. As an application of the bound we show that it strongly restricts the information capacity of the posited black hole remnants, so that they cannot serve to resolve the information paradox.Comment: 12 pages, UCSBTH-93-2

    Tensor-vector-scalar-modified gravity: from small scale to cosmology

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    The impressive success of the standard cosmological model has suggested to many that its ingredients are all one needs to explain galaxies and their systems. I summarize a number of known problems with this program. They might signal the failure of standard gravity theory on galaxy scales. The requisite hints as to the alternative gravity theory may lie with the MOND paradigm which has proved an effective summary of galaxy phenomenology. A simple nonlinear modified gravity theory does justice to MOND at the nonrelativistic level, but cannot be consistently promoted to relativistic status. The obstacles were first sidestepped with the formulation of TeVeS, a covariant modified gravity theory. I review its structure, its MOND and Newtonian limits, and its performance in face of galaxy phenomenology. I also summarize features of TeVeS cosmology and describe the confrontation with data from strong and weak gravitational lensingComment: Invited talk at the Royal Society's Theo Murphy Meeting "Testing general relativity with cosmology", Feb. 2011. LaTeX, 15 page

    Entropy bounds for charged and rotating systems

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    It was shown in a previous work that, for systems in which the entropy is an extensive function of the energy and volume, the Bekenstein and the holographic entropy bounds predict new results. In this paper, we go further and derive improved upper bounds to the entropy of {\it extensive} charged and rotating systems. Furthermore, it is shown that for charged and rotating systems (including non-extensive ones), the total energy that appear in both the Bekenstein entropy bound (BEB) and the causal entropy bound (CEB) can be replaced by the {\it internal} energy of the system. In addition, we propose possible corrections to the BEB and the CEB.Comment: 12 pages, revte

    Does the generalized second law require entropy bounds for a charged system?

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    We calculate the net change in generalized entropy occurring when one carries out the gedanken experiment in which a box initially containing energy EE, entropy SS and charge QQ is lowered adiabatically toward a Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole and then dropped in. This is an extension of the work of Unruh-Wald to a charged system (the contents of the box possesses a charge QQ). Their previous analysis showed that the effects of acceleration radiation prevent violation of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. In our more generic case, we show that the properties of the thermal atmosphere are equally important when charge is present. Indeed, we prove here that an equilibrium condition for the the thermal atmosphere and the physical properties of ordinary matter are sufficient to enforce the generalized second law. Thus, no additional assumptions concerning entropy bounds on the contents of the box need to be made in this process. The relation between our work and the recent works of Bekenstein and Mayo, and Hod (entropy bound for a charged system) are also discussed.Comment: 18pages, RevTex, no figure

    Black hole polarization and new entropy bounds

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    Zaslavskii has suggested how to tighten Bekenstein's bound on entropy when the object is electrically charged. Recently Hod has provided a second tighter version of the bound applicable when the object is rotating. Here we derive Zaslavskii's optimized bound by considering the accretion of an ordinary charged object by a black hole. The force originating from the polarization of the black hole by a nearby charge is central to the derivation of the bound from the generalized second law. We also conjecture an entropy bound for charged rotating objects, a synthesis of Zaslavskii's and Hod's. On the basis of the no hair principle for black holes, we show that this last bound cannot be tightened further in a generic way by knowledge of ``global'' conserved charges, e.g., baryon number, which may be borne by the object.Comment: 21 pages, RevTex, Regularization of potential made clearer. Error in energy of the particle corrected with no consequence for final conclusions. New references adde

    Selection Rules for Black-Hole Quantum Transitions

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    We suggest that quantum transitions of black holes comply with selection rules, analogous to those of atomic spectroscopy. In order to identify such rules, we apply Bohr's correspondence principle to the quasinormal ringing frequencies of black holes. In this context, classical ringing frequencies with an asymptotically vanishing real part \omega_R correspond to virtual quanta, and may thus be interpreted as forbidden quantum transitions. With this motivation, we calculate the quasinormal spectrum of neutrino fields in spherically symmetric black-hole spacetimes. It is shown that \omega_R->0 for these resonances, suggesting that the corresponding fermionic transitions are quantum mechanically forbidden.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure