9 research outputs found

    Wear: A Serious Problem in Industry

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    Wear is the damaging, gradual removal or deformation of material at solid surfaces. Causes of wear can be mechanical or chemical. The study of wear and related processes is known as tribology. Abrasive wear alone has been estimated to cost 1–4% of the gross national product of industrialized nations. The current chapter focuses on types of wear phenomena observed in the industries (such as abrasive wear, adhesive wear, fretting wear, fatigue wear, erosive wear and corrosive wear), their mechanisms, application of surface coating for the protection of the surface from the industrial wear, types of surface coatings, thermal spray coating, types of thermal spray coating and its application in industry to protect the surface from wear. The detail information about the wear phenomena will help the industries to minimize their maintenance cost of the parts

    Genetic Dissection of Grain Size Traits Through Genome-Wide Association Study Based on Genic Markers in Rice

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    Not AvailableGrain size plays a significant role in rice, starting from affecting yield to consumer preference, which is the driving force for deep investigation and improvement of grain size characters. Quantitative inheritance makes these traits complex to breed on account of several alleles contributing to the complete trait expression. We employed genome-wide association study in an association panel of 88 rice genotypes using 142 new candidate gene based SSR (cgSSR) markers, derived from yield-related candidate genes, with the efficient mixed-model association coupled mixed linear model for dissecting complete genetic control of grain size traits. A total of 10 significant associations were identified for four grain size-related characters (grain weight, grain length, grain width, and length-width ratio). Among the identified associations, seven marker trait associations explain more than 10% of the phenotypic variation, indicating major putative QTLs for respective traits. The allelic variations at genes OsBC1L4, SHO1 and OsD2 showed association between 1000-grain weight and grain width, 1000-grain weight and grain length, and grain width and length-width ratio, respectively. The cgSSR markers, associated with corresponding traits, can be utilized for direct allelic selection, while other significantly associated cgSSRs may be utilized for allelic accumulation in the breeding programs or grain size improvement. The new cgSSR markers associated with grain size related characters have a significant impact on practical plant breeding to increase the number of causative alleles for these traits through marker aided rice breeding programs.Not Availabl

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    Not AvailableBACKGROUND To improve production efficiency, positive alleles corresponding to yield-related attributes must be accumulated in a single elite background. We designed and used cgSSR markers, which are superior to random SSR markers in genome-wide association study, to identify genomic regions that contribute to panicle characters and grain yield in this study. RESULTS As evidenced by the high polymorphic information content value and gene diversity coefficient, the new cgSSR markers were determined to be highly informative. These cgSSR markers were employed to generate genotype data for an association panel evaluated for four panicle characters and grain yield over three seasons. For five traits, 17 significant marker–trait associations on six chromosomes were discovered. The percentage of phenotypic variance that could be explained ranged from 4% to 13%. Unrelated gene-derived markers had a strong association with target traits as well. CONCLUSION Trait-associated cgSSR markers derived from corresponding or related genes ensure their utility in direct allele selection, while other linked markers aid in allele selection indirectly by altering the phenotype of interest. Through a marker-assisted breeding approach, these marker–trait associations can be leveraged to accumulate favourable alleles for yield enhancement in rice. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.ICA

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    Not AvailableSeed germination plays cardinal roles in seedling establishment and their successive growth. However, seed germination is retarded by far-red (FR) enrichment under low light stress, and the inhibitory signalling mechanism remains ambiguous. Our results indicated that low light treatment, both in the open and growth chamber conditions, inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the gibberellin (GA) contents. To explore the mechanism of GA-deficiency under low light stress, differential expression profiling of GA-anabolic, -catabolic, ABA -anabolic, catabolic, and SLR1 was investigated, revealing that expression of ABA- anabolic, GA-catabolic genes and SLR1 was upregulated with a simultaneous downregulation of ABA-catabolic and GA-anabolic genes under low light treatment. These results suggested that FR-induced GA inadequacy is resulted by upregulation of SLR1 and GAcatabolism genes consequently increase DELLA that further subsided GA-responses in the germinating rice seeds. Moreover, we provided evidence that FR-induced GA inadequacy demotes rice seed germination by decreasing amylase activity, eventually decreasing the carbohydrate solubilization in the germinating seeds. Finally, we suggest that under low light stress, due to a retarded conversion of phytochrome A to their bioactive form, the ABA-catabolic genes were eventually upregulated with a simultaneous downregulation of GA-anabolic genes. Consequently, a lower GA pool fails to leverage the GA-dependent DELLA degradation, further shutting down the expected GA responses that reduce germination efficiency under FRenriched light.Not Availabl

    Additional file 1 of Understanding natural genetic variation for grain phytic acid content and functional marker development for phytic acid-related genes in rice

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    Additional file 1: Supplementary Fig. S1. The grain PA content of 94 rice genotypes and two landraces for the year 2020 and 2021. Supplementary Fig. S2. Representative image of allelic diversity at the (AAG)n genetic loci of 3’ UTR of the SPDT gene among 96 rice genotypes (uncropped full length gel image). Supplementary Fig. S3. The dendrogram constructed based on the allelic diversity for PA-related candidate genes in 96 rice genotypes. Supplementary Table S1. Candidate genes reported to be associated with grain PA content in rice. Supplementary Table S2. Nucleotide diversity parameters for the SPDT and OsPT8 genes in rice

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    Not AvailableAssessing genetic diversity and development of a core set of elite breeding lines is a prerequisite for selective hybridization programes intended to improve the yield potential in rice. In the present study, the genetic diversity of newly developed elite lines derived from indicax tropical japonica and indicax indica crosses were estimated by 38 reported molecular markers. The markers used in the study consist of 24 gene-based and 14 random markers related to grain yield-related QTLs distributed across the rice genome. Genotypic characterization was carried out to determine the genetic similarities between the elite lines. In total, 75 alleles were found using 38 polymorphic markers, with polymorphism information content ranging from 0.10 to 0.51 with an average of 0.35. The genotypes were divided into three groups based on cluster analysis, structure analysis and also dispersed throughout the quadrangle of PCA, but nitrogen responsive lines clustered in one quadrangle. Seven markers (GS3_RGS1, GS3_RGS2, GS5_Indel1, Ghd 7_05SNP, RM 12289, RM 23065 and RM 25457) exhibited PIC values C 0.50 indicating that they were effective in detecting genetic relationships among elite rice. Additionally, a core set of 11 elite lines was made from 96 lines in order to downsize the diversity of the original population into a small set for parental selection. In general, the genetic information collected in this work will aid in the study of grain yield traits at molecular level for other sets of rice genotypes and for selecting diverse elite lines to develop a strong crossing programme in rice.ICA

    Identification of microRNAs That Provide a Low Light Stress Tolerance-Mediated Signaling Pathway during Vegetative Growth in Rice

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    Low light intensity affects several physiological parameters during the different growth stages in rice. Plants have various regulatory mechanisms to cope with stresses. One of them is the differential and temporal expression of genes, which is governed by post-transcriptional gene expression regulation through endogenous miRNAs. To decipher low light stress-responsive miRNAs in rice, miRNA expression profiling was carried out using next-generation sequencing of low-light-tolerant (Swarnaprabha) and -sensitive (IR8) rice genotypes through Illumina sequencing. Swarnaprabha and IR8 were subjected to 25% low light treatment for one day, three days, and five days at the active tillering stage. More than 43 million raw reads and 9 million clean reads were identified in Swarnaprabha, while more than 41 million raw reads and 8.5 million clean reads were identified in IR8 after NGS. Importantly, 513 new miRNAs in rice were identified, whose targets were mostly regulated by the genes involved in photosynthesis and metabolic pathways. Additionally, 114 known miRNAs were also identified. Five novel (osa-novmiR1, osa-novmiR2, osa-novmiR3, osa-novmiR4, and osa-novmiR5) and three known (osa-miR166c-3p, osa-miR2102-3p, and osa-miR530-3p) miRNAs were selected for their expression validation through miRNA-specific qRT-PCR. The expression analyses of most of the predicted targets of corresponding miRNAs show negative regulation. Hence, miRNAs modulated the expression of genes providing tolerance/susceptibility to low light stress. This information might be useful in the improvement of crop productivity under low light stress

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    Not AvailableTraditional rice varieties grown by the farmers serve as valuable genetic resources for future rice improvement. These varieties are highly adapted to varied agro-ecological conditions. However, they are rapidly lost because of the adoption of high-yielding varieties. The extent of allelic and genetic diversity present in the germplasm is a prerequisite for the improvement of any crop and conservation strategies under adverse impacts of climate. Farmers' rice varieties are usually poor yielders but are allelic treasurer for different traits, especially biotic and abiotic stresses, grain qualities, early seedling vigor, input use efficiency, etc. Therefore, the present study was aimed for a detailed understanding of allelic and genetic diversity, and population structure of 607 farmers' rice varieties using 36 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and 53 morphological traits. A total of 363 alleles was detected with an average of 10.33 alleles per locus and moderately high Nei's allelic/gene diversity (0.502) was detected. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.685 to 0.987 with an average of 0.901. 34 unique, 236 rare, 84 low-frequency and 44 high-frequency alleles were detected. 53 morphological traits harbored a total of 195 variables with an average of 4.217 variables per trait. 50 out of 53 morphological traits showed polymorphism and highly significant differences among varieties. High genetic diversity was observed among 607 farmers' rice varieties both at molecular (0.653) and phenotypic (0.656) levels. The dendrogram based on both microsatellite markers and morphological traits grouped the 607 farmers' rice varieties into three major groups. A moderate population structure was observed with two independent subpopulations SP1 and SP2, which have membership percentages of 82.6 % and 17.4 %, fixation index values of 0.19 and 0.194, respectively. The AMOVA could explain 63 % of the total variation among varieties and 34 % within varieties. Our results showed that the farmers' rice varieties of Odisha harbored higher levels of both allelic and genetic diversity. Hence, these varieties would be useful for the identification of novel and elite alleles, and serve as a source of donors for the development of climate-smart varieties with improved grain yield and qualities, and input use efficiency, which would be sustainable in changing climate scenario conditions and improve farmers' income.Not Availabl
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