167 research outputs found

    Evaluation of GoGirlGo!; A practitioner based program to improve physical activity

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    Background: GoGirlGo! (GGG) is designed to increase girls’ physical activity (PA) using a health behavior and PA-based curriculum and is widely available for free to afterschool programs across the nation. However, GGG has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the GGG curricula to improve PA, and self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA in elementary aged girls (i.e., 5-13 years). Methods: Nine afterschool programs were recruited to participate in the pilot (within subjects repeated measures design). GGG is a 12-week program, with a once a week, one-hour lesson with 30 minutes of education and 30 minutes of PA). Data collection occurred at baseline, mid (twice), post, and at follow-up (3-months after the intervention ended). PA was assessed via accelerometry at each time point. Self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA was measured using the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Short-PA enjoyment scale and was assessed at baseline, post, and follow-up. Fidelity was assessed at midpoint. Results: Across all age groups there was a statistically significant increase in PA. Overall, on days GGG was offered girls accumulated an average of 11 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to 8 minutes during non-GGG days. There was a statistically significant difference in girls’ self-efficacy for PA reported between baseline and post, which was maintained at follow-up. An improvement in enjoyment of PA for girls was found between baseline and follow-up. According to fidelity assessment, 89% of the activities within the curriculum were completed each lesson. Girls appeared to respond well to the curriculum but girls 5-7 years had difficulties paying attention and understanding discussion questions. Conclusions: Even though there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy for PA and enjoyment of PA, minimal increases in girls’ PA were observed. GGG curricula improvements are warranted. Future GGG programming should explore offering GGG every day, modifying activities so that they are moderate-to-vigorous in intensity, and providing additional trainings that allow staff to better implement PA and improve behavior management techniques. With modifications, GGG could provide a promising no-cost curriculum that afterschool programs may implement to help girls achieve recommendations for PA

    Physical Activity Levels of Adolescent Girls During Dance Classes

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    Background: The aims of this study were to describe the physical activity levels of girls during dance classes and to identify factors associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in those classes. Methods: Participants were 137 girls (11 to 18 years-old) enrolled in ballet, jazz, or tap dance classes from 11 dance studios. Participants wore an accelerometer during the selected dance class on 2 separate days. Factors hypothesized to be associated with MVPA were dance style, instructional level, instructor\u27s experience, percent of class time spent in choreography, and participants\u27 age, race/ethnicity, BMI-for-age percentile, and years of dance training. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Results: Girls engaged in 9.8 minutes of MVPA, 6.0 minutes of moderate, 3.8 minutes of vigorous, 39.3 minutes of light, and 10.9 minutes of sedentary behavior per hour of dance class participation. Jazz/tap classes provided more MVPA than ballet classes, and intermediate level classes provided more MVPA than advanced level classes. Girls with more dance training obtained more MVPA than girls with less dance training. Conclusion: Dance classes provide valuable opportunities for adolescent girls to be physically active

    Accuracy of Voice-Announcement Pedometers for Youth with Visual Impairment

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    Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 plus or minus 2.1 yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (Centrios[TM] Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range 0.37 to 0.76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below plus or minus 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC 0.98, error approximately 1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.

    Children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays versus weekend days: a multi-country analysis

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    PURPOSE The Structured Days Hypothesis (SDH) posits that children's behaviors associated with obesity - such as physical activity - are more favorable on days that contain more 'structure' (i.e., a pre-planned, segmented, and adult-supervised environment) such as school weekdays, compared to days with less structure, such as weekend days. The purpose of this study was to compare children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels on weekdays versus weekend days using a large, multi-country, accelerometer-measured physical activity dataset. METHODS Data were received from the International Children's Accelerometer Database (ICAD) July 2019. The ICAD inclusion criteria for a valid day of wear, only non-intervention data (e.g., baseline intervention data), children with at least 1 weekday and 1 weekend day, and ICAD studies with data collected exclusively during school months, were included for analyses. Mixed effects models accounting for the nested nature of the data (i.e., days within children) assessed MVPA minutes per day (min/day MVPA) differences between weekdays and weekend days by region/country, adjusted for age, sex, and total wear time. Separate meta-analytical models explored differences by age and country/region for sex and child weight-status. RESULTS/FINDINGS Valid data from 15 studies representing 5794 children (61% female, 10.7 ± 2.1 yrs., 24% with overweight/obesity) and 35,263 days of valid accelerometer data from 5 distinct countries/regions were used. Boys and girls accumulated 12.6 min/day (95% CI: 9.0, 16.2) and 9.4 min/day (95% CI: 7.2, 11.6) more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, respectively. Children from mainland Europe had the largest differences (17.1 min/day more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, 95% CI: 15.3, 19.0) compared to the other countries/regions. Children who were classified as overweight/obese or normal weight/underweight accumulated 9.5 min/day (95% CI: 6.9, 12.2) and 10.9 min/day (95% CI: 8.3, 13.5) of additional MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Children from multiple countries/regions accumulated significantly more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days during school months. This finding aligns with the SDH and warrants future intervention studies to prioritize less-structured days, such as weekend days, and to consider providing opportunities for all children to access additional opportunities to be active

    Sedentary Behavior in Preschoolers: How Many Days of Accelerometer Monitoring Is Needed?

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    The reliability of accelerometry for measuring sedentary behavior in preschoolers has not been determined, thus we determined how many days of accelerometry monitoring are necessary to reliably estimate daily time spent in sedentary behavior in preschoolers. In total, 191 and 150 preschoolers (three to five years) wore ActiGraph accelerometers (15-s epoch) during the in-school (≥4 days) and the total-day (≥6 days) period respectively. Accelerometry data were summarized as time spent in sedentary behavior (min/h) using three different cutpoints developed for preschool-age children

    Validity and Wearability of Consumer-based Fitness Trackers in Free-living Children

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 12(5): 471-482, 2019. Over the past decade wearable fitness trackers (WFTs) have grown in popularity with more recent versions able to capture the pulse rate noninvasively on the wrist of the wearer. Most of evidence on the validity of WFTs have explored adults in clinical settings. Thus, the purpose of this study is to 1) evaluate the validity of a wrist-placed WFT in determining heart rate, and 2) examine the wear compliance of a wrist-placed WFT, in children in free-living settings. In study 1, 19 children (5-12yrs) wore a Fitbit Charge HR© and a Polar chest strap heart rate (HR) monitor for 2 hours while performing sedentary-to-vigorous activities at a holiday camp in December 2016. In study 2, 20 children with mild developmental disabilities (8-13yrs) were asked to wear a Fitbit Alta HR© during summer 2017. In study 1, mean absolute percent difference between the WFT HR and criterion was 6.9%. Overall, \u3e75% of WFT HRs were within 5-10% of the criterion. Bland Altman plots indicated a moderate-to-high level of agreement between the WFT and criterion (mean difference 4.1%; Limits of Agreement 26.8, -18.5%). In study 2, participants had the device in their possession for 43 days (SD±14, range 14 – 56 days) and wore it on 67% of those days (range: 20 – 96%) for at least 10 hours/day. Preliminary evidence suggests that WFTs can provide comparable HR estimates to a criterion field-based measure and children can wear WFTs for extended monitoring periods in free-living settings

    Equating Accelerometer Estimates of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity: In Search of the Rosetta Stone

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    Purpose - No universally accepted ActiGraph accelerometer cutpoints for quantifying moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exist. Estimates of MVPA from one set of cutpoints cannot be directly compared to MVPA estimates using different cutpoints, even when the same outcome units are reported (MVPA min•d-1). The purpose of this study was to illustrate the utility of an equating system that translates reported MVPA estimates from one set of cutpoints into another, to better inform public health policy. Design - Secondary data analysis. Methods - ActiGraph data from a large preschool project (N=419, 3-6yr-olds, CHAMPS) was used to conduct the analyses. Conversions were made among five different published MVPA cutpoints for children: Pate (PT), Sirard (SR), Puyau (PY), Van Cauwengerghe (VC), and Freedson Equation (FR). A 10 fold cross-validation procedure was used to develop prediction equations using MVPA estimated from each of the five sets of cutpoints as the dependent variable, with estimated MVPA from one of the other four sets of cutpoints (e.g., PT MVPA predicted from FR MVPA). Results - The mean levels of MVPA for the total sample ranged from 22.5 (PY) to 269.0 (FR) min•d-1. Across the prediction models (5 total), the median proportion of variance explained (R2) was 0.76 (range 0.48-0.97). The median absolute percent error was 17.2% (range 6.3%-38.4%). Conclusion - The prediction equations developed here allow for direct comparisons between studies employing different ActiGraph cutpoints in preschool-age children. These prediction equations give public health researchers and policy makers a more concise picture of physical activity levels of preschool-aged children

    Intervention leads to improvements in the nutrient profile of snacks served in afterschool programs: a group randomized controlled trial

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    Widely adopted nutrition policies for afterschool programs (ASPs) focus on serving a fruit/vegetable daily and eliminating sugar-sweetened foods/beverages. The impact of these policies on the nutrient profile of snacks served is unclear. Evaluate changes in macro/micronutrient content of snacks served in ASPs. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary-age children. Intervention ASPs received a multistep adaptive framework intervention. Direct observation of snack served was collected and nutrient information determined using the USDA Nutrient Database, standardized to nutrients/100 kcal. By post-assessment, intervention ASPs reduced total kcal/snack served by 66 kcal (95CI -114 to -19 kcal) compared to control ASPs. Total fiber (+1.7 g/100 kcal), protein (+1.4 g/100 kcal), polyunsaturated fat (+1.2 g/100 kcal), phosphorous (+49.0 mg/100 kcal), potassium (+201.8 mg/100 kcal), and vitamin K (+21.5 ÎĽg/100 kcal) increased in intervention ASPs, while added sugars decreased (-5.0 g/100 kcal). Nutrition policies can lead to modest daily caloric reductions and improve select macro/micronutrients in snacks served. Long-term, these nutritional changes may contribute to healthy dietary habits

    Physical activity and healthy eating environmental audit tools in youth care settings: A systematic review

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    There is a growing interest in evaluating the physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) policy and practice environment characteristics in settings frequented by youth (≤18 years)
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