432 research outputs found

    Combined Log System

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    Busy Internet archives generate large logs for each access method being used. These raw log files can be difficult to process and to search. This paper describes a system for reading these growing logs, a combined log file format into which they are re-written and a system that automates this building and integration for multiple access methods. Automated summarizing of the information is also provided giving statistics on accesses by user, site, path-name and date/time amongst others

    The ACademic DireCtory - AC/DC

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    AC/DC (See URL http://acdc.hensa.ac.uk) is an experimental, collaborative research project that indexes and allows searches over all public academic WWW servers in the UK. This report describes why AC/DC was created, how it is built from existing software, the collaborative process used to collect and index the data and future activities

    The ecological and biogeochemical state of the North Pacifi c Subtropical Gyre is linked to sea surface height

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    Sea surface height (SSH) is routinely measured from satellites and used to infer ocean currents, including eddies, that affect the distribution of organisms and substances in the ocean. SSH not only reflects the dynamics of the surface layer, but also is sensitive to the fluctuations of the main pycnocline; thus it is linked to events of nutrient upwelling. Beyond episodic upwelling events, it is not clear if and how SSH is linked to broader changes in the biogeochemical state of marine ecosystems. Our analysis of 23 years of satellite observations and biogeochemical measurements from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre shows that SSH is associated with numerous biogeochemical changes in distinct layers of the water column. From the sea surface to the depth of the chlorophyll maximum, dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen enigmatically increase with SSH, enhancing the abundance of heterotrophic picoplankton. At the deep chlorophyll maximum, increases in SSH are associated with decreases in vertical gradients of inorganic nutrients, decreases in the abundance of eukaryotic phytoplankton, and increases in the abundance of prokaryotic phytoplankton. In waters below ∼100 m depth, increases in SSH are associated with increases in organic matter and decreases in inorganic nutrients, consistent with predicted consequences of the vertical displacement of isopycnal layers. Our analysis highlights how satellite measurements of SSH can be used to infer the ecological and biogeochemical state of open-ocean ecosystems

    Contrasting Controls on Microzooplankton Grazing and Viral Infection of Microbial Prey

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    The encounter and capture of bacteria and phytoplankton by microbial predators and parasites is fundamental to marine ecosystem organization and activity. Here, we combined classic biophysical models with published laboratory measurements to infer functional traits, including encounter kernel and capture efficiency, for a wide range of marine viruses and microzooplankton grazers. Despite virus particles being orders of magnitude smaller than microzooplankton grazers, virus encounter kernels and adsorption rates were in many cases comparable in magnitude to grazer encounter kernel and clearance, pointing to Brownian motion as a highly effective method of transport for viruses. Inferred virus adsorption efficiency covered many orders of magnitude, but the median virus adsorption efficiency was between 5 and 25% depending on the assumed host swimming speed. Uncertainty on predator detection area and swimming speed prevented robust inference of grazer capture efficiency, but sensitivity analysis was used to identify bounds on unconstrained processes. These results provide a common functional trait framework for understanding marine host-virus and predator-prey interactions, and highlight the value of theory for interpreting measured life-history traits

    LAP-like non-canonical autophagy and evolution of endocytic vacuoles in pancreatic acinar cells

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    Activation of trypsinogen (formation of trypsin) inside the pancreas is an early pathological event in the development of acute pancreatitis. In our previous studies we identified the activation of trypsinogen within endocytic vacuoles (EVs), cellular organelles that appear in pancreatic acinar cells treated with the inducers of acute pancreatitis. EVs are formed as a result of aberrant compound exocytosis and subsequent internalization of post-exocytic structures. These organelles can be up to 12 μm in diameter and can be actinated (i.e. coated with F-actin). Notably, EVs can undergo intracellular rupture and fusion with the plasma membrane, providing trypsin with access to cytoplasmic and extracellular targets. Unraveling the mechanisms involved in cellular processing of EVs is an interesting cell biological challenge with potential benefits for understanding acute pancreatitis. In this study we have investigated autophagy of EVs and discovered that it involves a non-canonical LC3-conjugation mechanism, reminiscent in its properties to LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP); in both processes LC3 was recruited to single, outer organellar membranes. Trypsinogen activation peptide was observed in approximately 55% of LC3-coated EVs indicating the relevance of the described process to the early cellular events of acute pancreatitis. We also investigated relationships between actination and non-canonical autophagy of EVs and concluded that these processes represent sequential steps in the evolution of EVs. Our study expands the known roles of LAP and indicates that, in addition to its well-established functions in phagocytosis and macropinocytosis, LAP is also involved in the processing of post-exocytic organelles in exocrine secretory cells. Abbreviations: AP: acute pancreatitis; CCK: cholecystokinin; CLEM: correlative light and electron microscopy; DPI: diphenyleneiodonium; EV: endocytic vacuole; LAP: LC3-associate phagocytosis; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; PACs: pancreatic acinar cells; PFA: paraformaldehyde; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; Res: resveratrol; TAP: trypsinogen activation peptide; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TLC-S: taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate; TRD: Dextran Texas Red 3000 MW Neutral; ZGs: zymogen granules

    Contrasting Controls on Microzooplankton Grazing and Viral Infection of Microbial Prey

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    The encounter and capture of bacteria and phytoplankton by microbial predators and parasites is fundamental to marine ecosystem organization and activity. Here, we combined classic biophysical models with published laboratory measurements to infer functional traits, including encounter kernel and capture efficiency, for a wide range of marine viruses and microzooplankton grazers. Despite virus particles being orders of magnitude smaller than microzooplankton grazers, virus encounter kernels and adsorption rates were in many cases comparable in magnitude to grazer encounter kernel and clearance, pointing to Brownian motion as a highly effective method of transport for viruses. Inferred virus adsorption efficiency covered many orders of magnitude, but the median virus adsorption efficiency was between 5 and 25% depending on the assumed host swimming speed. Uncertainty on predator detection area and swimming speed prevented robust inference of grazer capture efficiency, but sensitivity analysis was used to identify bounds on unconstrained processes. These results provide a common functional trait framework for understanding marine host-virus and predator-prey interactions, and highlight the value of theory for interpreting measured life-history traits

    Re-conceptualising talent management and development within the context of the low paid

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    Those working in organisations have choices to make not only associated with the goods and services they produce but also their wider social and economic impact. The number of employees in low skilled/low paid jobs and the high proportion of companies adopting business strategies based on low-specification goods and services are a concern for many developed and developing economies. Addressing this problem is not traditionally the concern of Human Resource Development however we argue that through exploring the role that a wider, more balanced approach to Sustainable Talent Management and Development (S-TMD) may play within the context of the low skilled in the UK provides a crucial link to enhancing an organisation’s performance and responsibility to society. At the heart of this approach lies a shift to appreciate the collective endeavour of work practices, an enhanced role for stakeholders and identification of, and participation in skills eco-systems to support sustainable development. The paper identifies the opportunity for S-TMD to move from a predominantly individualist, managerial and unitarist understanding to one grounded in the value of tacit and embedded development processes undertaken to reflect a pluralist, multi-voiced approach to understanding of a skills eco-system
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