78 research outputs found

    Multi-touch Technology in Early Childhood: Current Trends and Future Challenges

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    ¬© ACM 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in Interacci√≥n '15 Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on Human Computer Interactionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1145/{10.1145/2829875.2829887The advantages of the direct manipulation style make the multi-touch technology an ideal mechanism to support learning activities for children. Moreover, although pre-kindergarten children are becoming frequent users of the technology little work has been done in the area to assess their actual abilities. This paper goes over the state of the art of multi-touch technology targeting pre-kindergarten children and its use for educational purposes. In addition, in this work we present future challenges that should be faced in the area in the near future to establish the basis on which designers will develop educational applications for children that fully exploit the multi-touch technology according to the actual abilities of pre-kindergarten children.Work supported by the MINECO (grants TIN2010-20488 and TIN2014-60077-R) and from GVA (ACIF/2015/075).N√°cher-Soler, VE.; Ja√©n Mart√≠nez, FJ. (2015). Multi-touch Technology in Early Childhood: Current Trends and Future Challenges. ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2829875.2829887SAbdul Aziz, N.A., Batmaz, F., Stone, R., and Paul, C. Selection of touch gestures for children's applications. Proc. of SIC'13, 721--726.Abdul Aziz, N.A., Mat, N.S., Batmaz, F., Stone, R., and Paul, C. Selection of Touch Gestures for Children's Applications: Repeated Experiment to Increase Reliability. 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Interaction Design and Children. Foundations and Trends® in Human-Computer Interaction 1, 4 (2007), 277--392.Ingram, A., Wang, X., and Ribarsky, W. Towards the establishment of a framework for intuitive multi-touch interaction design. Proc. of AVI'12, 66--73.Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 K-12. The New Media Consortium, Austin, Texas, 2012.Kammer, D., Dang, R., Steinhauf, J., and Groh, R. Investigating interaction with tabletops in kindergarten environments. Proc. of IDC'14, 57--66.Knoche, H., Rasmussen, N.A., and Boldreel, K. Do Interactions Speak Louder than Words? Dialogic Reading of an Interactive Tablet-based E-book with Children between 16 Months and Three Years of Age. Proc. of IDC'14, 285--288.Kremer, K.E. Conducting Game User Experience Research with Preschoolers. Workshop on Games User Research: practice, methods, and applications (collocated to CHI'12).Nacher, V., Jaen, J., Catala, A., Navarro, E., and Gonzalez, P. Improving Pre-Kindergarten Touch Performance. Proc. of ITS '14, 163--166.Nacher, V., Jaen, J., and Catala, A. Exploring Visual Cues for Intuitive Communicability of Touch Gestures to Pre-kindergarten Children. Proc. of ITS '14, 159--162.Nacher, V., Jaen, J., Navarro, E., Catala, A., and González, P. Multi-touch gestures for pre-kindergarten children. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 73, (2015), 37--51.Piaget, J.The Child and Reality. Grossman, New York, 1973.Rushton, S. and Juola-Rushton, A. Classroom Learning Environment, Brain Research and The No Child Left Behind Initiative: 6 years Later. Early Childhood Education Journal 36, 1 (2008), 87--92.Shneiderman, B., Plaisant, C., Cohen, M., and Jacobs, S. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall, 2009.Shuler, C. iLearn II: An Analysis of the Education Category of the iTunes App Store. The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop, New York, 2012.Smith, S.P., Burd, E., and Rick, J. Developing, evaluating and deploying multi-touch systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 70, 10 (2012), 653--656.Vatavu, R., Cramariuc, G., and Schipor, D.M. Touch interaction for children aged 3 to 6 years: Experimental findings and relationship to motor skills. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 74, (2015), 54--76.Wakefield, J. and Smith, D. From Socrates to Satellites: iPad Learning in an Undergraduate Course. Creative Education 03, 05 (2012), 643--648.Wolock, E., Ann Orr, E.D., and Buckleitner, W. Child development 101 for the developers of interactive media. Active Learning Associates, Inc., 2006.Zaranis, N., Kalogiannakis, M., and Papadakis, S. Using Mobile Devices for Teaching Realistic Mathematics in Kindergarten Education. Creative Education 04, 07 (2013), 1--10

    IP-10 Levels as an Accurate Screening Tool to Detect Acute HIV Infection in Resource-Limited Settings.

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    Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the period prior to seroconversion characterized by high viral replication, hyper-transmission potential and commonly, non-specific febrile illness. AHI detection requires HIV-RNA viral load (VL) determination, which has very limited access in low-income countries due to restrictive costs and implementation constraints. We sought to identify a biomarker that could enable AHI diagnosis in scarce-resource settings, and to evaluate the feasibility of its implementation. HIV-seronegative adults presenting at the Manhi√ßa District Hospital, Mozambique, with reported-fever were tested for VL. Plasma levels of 49 inflammatory biomarkers from AHI (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ61) and non-HIV infected outpatients (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ65) were determined by Luminex and ELISA. IP-10 demonstrated the best predictive power for AHI detection (AUC‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.88 [95%CI 0.80-0.96]). A cut-off value of IP-10‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČ161.6‚ÄČpg/mL provided a sensitivity of 95.5% (95%CI 85.5-99.5) and a specificity of 76.5% (95%CI 62.5-87.2). The implementation of an IP-10 screening test could avert from 21 to 84 new infections and save from US176,609toUS176,609 to US533,467 to the health system per 1,000 tested patients. We conclude that IP-10 is an accurate biomarker to screen febrile HIV-seronegative individuals for subsequent AHI diagnosis with VL. Such an algorithm is a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease progression and a substantial number of further HIV infections

    HIV-1 subtype C transmitted founders modulate dendritic cell inflammatory responses

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    Background Heterosexual transmission remains the main route of HIV-1 transmission and female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases the risk of infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation facilitates infection is not fully understood. In rhesus macaques challenged with simian immunodeficiency virus, dendritic cell (DC) mediated recruitment of CD4+ T cells to the FGT was critical for infection. The aim of this study was to delineate the mechanisms underlying DC-mediated HIV infection by comparing chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to transmitted founder (TF) and chronic infection (CI) Envelope (Env) pseudotyped viruses (PSV). Results Monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) were stimulated with PSV and recombinant gp140 representing matched TF and CI pairs of four individuals and cytokine secretion measured by multiplex immuno-assay. We found that 4/9 Env induced robust MDDC inflammatory responses and of those, three were cloned from TFs. Overall, TF Env induced MDDCs from healthy donors to secrete higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than those from CI, suggesting TF Env were better inducers of inflammation. Assessing the signalling pathway associated with inflammatory cytokines, we found that PSV of matched TF and CI variants and a gp140 clone activated ERK and JNK to similar levels. Recombinant soluble DC-SIGN inhibited cytokine release and activation of ERK by PSV, suggesting that Env-DC-SIGN binding was partly involved in MDDC stimulation. Therefore, Env clones might differentially stimulate MDDC immune responses via alternative, yet unidentified signalling pathways. Conclusion Overall, this could suggest that the genetics of the virus itself influences inflammatory responses during HIV infection. In the absence of pre-existing infections, induction of greater inflammatory response by TFs might favour virus survival within the healthy FGT by driving an influx of target cells to sites of infection while suppressing immune responses via IL-10

    Paenibacillus infection with frequent viral coinfection contributes to postinfectious hydrocephalus in Ugandan infants

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    Postinfectious hydrocephalus (PIH), which often follows neonatal sepsis, is the most common cause of pediatric hydrocephalus worldwide, yet the microbial pathogens underlying this disease remain to be elucidated. Characterization of the microbial agents causing PIH would enable a shift from surgical palliation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation to prevention of the disease. Here, we examined blood and CSF samples collected from 100 consecutive infant cases of PIH and control cases comprising infants with non-postinfectious hydrocephalus in Uganda. Genomic sequencing of samples was undertaken to test for bacterial, fungal, and parasitic DNA; DNA and RNA sequencing was used to identify viruses; and bacterial culture recovery was used to identify potential causative organisms. We found that infection with the bacterium Paenibacillus, together with frequent cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection, was associated with PIH in our infant cohort. Assembly of the genome of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate recovered from cultures of CSF samples from PIH cases identified a strain of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus. This strain, designated Mbale, was lethal when injected into mice in contrast to the benign reference Paenibacillus strain. These findings show that an unbiased pan-microbial approach enabled characterization of Paenibacillus in CSF samples from PIH cases, and point toward a pathway of more optimal treatment and prevention for PIH and other proximate neonatal infections

    You use! I use! We use! Questioning the orthodoxy of 1:1 computing in primary schools

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    The current orthodoxy regarding computer use in schools appears to be that 1:1 computing, i.e. each child owns or has sole access to a computing device, is the most efficacious way to achieve a range of desirable educational outcomes including individualised learning, collaborative environments or constructivist pedagogies. This article challenges this notion suggesting instead that 1:2 computing is an appropriate means of achieving such aims in Primary School. It further suggests that 1:2 computing is preferable to 1:1 computing to achieve a balance between productivity, student engagement, social activity and individualised learning. This article draws on data collected during the 2009 school year from four, Year 7 Classrooms (11-13 year old students) who had varied patterns of access to netbook computers. Detailed information was collected from two pieces of software installed in each computer. Data were analysed through an Activity Theory conceptual and methodological lens. Recommendations from this research will assist school leaders make informed decisions regarding 1:1 and 1:2 computing

    Trends in one-year cumulative incidence of death between 2005 and 2013 among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda

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    Recent ecological data demonstrate improving outcomes for HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, Uganda has experienced a resurgence in HIV incidence and prevalence, but trends in HIV-related deaths have not been well described. Data were collected through the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) Study, an observational longitudinal cohort of Ugandan adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2005 and 2013. We calculated cumulative incidence of death within one year of ART initiation, and fit Poisson models with robust variance estimators to estimate the effect enrollment period on one-year risk of death and loss to follow-up. Of 760 persons in UARTO who started ART, 30 deaths occurred within one year of ART initiation (cumulative incidence 3.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7‚Äď5.6%). Risk of death was highest for those starting ART in 2005 (13.0%, 95% CI 6.0‚Äď24.0%), decreased in 2006‚Äď2007 to 4% (95% CI 2.0‚Äď6.0%), and did not change thereafter (P=0.61). These results were robust to adjustment for age, sex, CD4 cell count, viral load, asset wealth, baseline depression, and body mass index. Here, we demonstrate that one-year cumulative incidence of death was high just after free ART rollout, decreased the following year, and remained low thereafter. Once established, ART programs in President‚Äôs Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief-supported countries can maintain high quality care
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