1,328 research outputs found

    Investigation looking at the repeatability of 20 Society of Master Saddlers (SMS) qualified saddle fitters’ observations during static saddle fit

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    Saddle fit is widely considered to be a crucial factor for the health and performance of riding horses; however, there have been no studies looking at the agreement between professionals who fit and assess saddles. The aim of the study was to determine the agreement between Society of Master Saddlers (SMSs) qualified saddle fitters when statically fitting a saddle following the SMS guidelines. Twenty SMS qualified saddle fitter volunteers were recruited via social media and asked to statically assess the fit of the saddle following the “7 points of saddle fit” guidelines of the SMS in 10 horses. Descriptive statistics and Fleiss Kappa (as a measure of agreement beyond chance) were used to determine agreement between fitters. Agreement varied from slight to substantial between the different saddle assessment criteria with the assessment of overall saddle fit resulting in a fair agreement of k = 0.32. Substantial agreement was found for saddle clearance front (k = 0.66), top (k = 0.78), and rear (k = 0.81). Fair agreement was found for clearance of the saddle—side (k = 0.28) and how the girth straps line up with girth groove (k = 0.31) and panel contact (k = 0.38). Slight agreement was found for tree width and length (k = 0.12) and tree length (k = 0.12). Horse height in some criteria affected agreement. Agreement varied between the standard criteria. In cases where it was difficult to visually evaluate saddle fit, agreement was lower. Further work should aim to standardize the criteria which had suboptimal agreement

    Numerical studies of gasoline direct injection engine processes

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    The GDI engine has a number of practical advantages over the more traditional port-fuel injection strategy, however a number of challenges remain the subject of continued research in an attempt to fully exploit the advantages of the GDI engine. These include complex in-cylinder flow fields and fuel-air mixing strategies, and significant temporal variation, both through an engine cycle and on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Despite advances in experimental techniques, the relative difficulty and cost of taking detailed measurements remains high, thus computational techniques are an integral part of research activities. The research work presented in this thesis has focused on the use of detailed 3D-CFD techniques for investigating physical phenomena of the in-cylinder flow field and fuel injection process in a single cylinder GDI engine with early injection event. A detailed validation of the numerical predictions of the in-cylinder flow field using both the RANS RNG k-ε turbulence model and the Smagorinsky LES SGS turbulence model was completed with both models showing good agreement against available experimental results. A detailed validation of the numerical predictions of the fuel injection process using a Lagrangian DDM and both RANS RNG k-ε turbulence model and Smagorinsky LES SGS turbulence model was completed with both models showing excellent agreement against experimental data. The model was then used to investigate the in-cylinder flow field and fuel injection process including research into: the three dimensional nature of the flow field; intake valve jet flapping, characterisation, causality and CCV, and whether it could account for CCV of the mixture field at spark timing; the anisotropic characteristics of the flow field using both the fluctuating velocity and turbulence intensity, including the increase in anisotropy due to the fuel injection event; the use of POD for quantitatively analysing the in-cylinder flow field; investigations into the intake valve, cylinder liner and piston crown spray plume impingement processes, including the use of a multi-component fuel surrogate and CCV of the formed liquid film; characterisation and CCV of the mixture field though the intake and compression strokes up to spark timing. Finally, the predicted turbulence characteristics were used to evaluate the resultant premixed turbulent combustion event using combustion regime diagrams

    Federal-Provincial Tax Equalization: An Evaluation

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    Major incident triage: Derivation and comparative analysis of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT).

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    BACKGROUND: Triage is a key principle in the effective management at a major incident. There are at least three different triage systems in use worldwide and previous attempts to validate them, have revealed limited sensitivity. Within a civilian adult population, there has been no work to develop an improved system. METHODS: A retrospective database review of the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was performed for all adult patients (>18years) presenting to a deployed Military Treatment Facility between 2006 and 2013. Patients were defined as Priority One if they had received one or more life-saving interventions from a previously defined list. Using first recorded hospital physiological data (HR/RR/GCS), binary logistic regression models were used to derive optimum physiological ranges to predict need for life-saving intervention. This allowed for the derivation of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool-MPTT (GCS≥14, HR≥100, 12<RR≥22). A comparison of the MPTT and existing triage tools was then performed using sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals. Differences in performance were assessed for statistical significance using a McNemar test with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Of 6095 patients, 3654 (60.0%) had complete data and were included in the study, with 1738 (47.6%) identified as priority one. Existing triage tools had a maximum sensitivity of 50.9% (Modified Military Sieve) and specificity of 98.4% (Careflight). The MPTT (sensitivity 69.9%, 95% CI 0.677-0.720, specificity 65.3%, 95% CI 0.632-0.675) showed an absolute increase in sensitivity over existing tools ranging from 19.0% (Modified Military Sieve) to 45.1% (Triage Sieve). There was a statistically significant difference between the performance (p<0.001) between the MPTT and the Modified Military Sieve. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The performance characteristics of the MPTT exceed existing major incident triage systems, whilst maintaining an appropriate rate of over-triage and minimising under-triage within the context of predicting the need for a life-saving intervention in a military setting. Further work is required to both prospectively validate this system and to identify its performance within a civilian environment, prior to recommending its use in the major incident setting

    Collective Flow from the Intranuclear Cascade Model

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    The phenomenon of collective flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions is studied using the hadronic cascade model ARC. Direct comparison is made to data gathered at the Bevalac, for Au+Au at p=12p=1-2 GeV/c. In contrast to the standard lore about the cascade model, collective flow is well described quantitatively without the need for explicit mean field terms to simulate the nuclear equation of state. Pion collective flow is in the opposite direction to nucleon flow as is that of anti-nucleons and other produced particles. Pion and nucleon flow are predicted at AGS energies also, where, in light of the higher baryon densities achieved, we speculate that equation of state effects may be observable.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures include

    Effect of the source charge on charged-beam interferometry

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    We investigate quantal perturbations of the interferometric correlations of charged bosons by the Coulomb field of an instantaneous, charged source. The source charge increases the apparent source size by weakening the correlation at non-zero relative momenta. The effect is strongest for pairs with a small total momentum and is stronger for kaons than for pions of the same momenta. The experimental data currently available are well described by this effect without invoking Pratt's exploding source model. A simple expression is proposed to account for the effect.Comment: 9 pages TEX, 3 Postscript figures available at http://www.krl.caltech.edu/preprints/MAP.htm
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