10 research outputs found

    The educational research-practice interface revisited

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    The question of how the realms of research and practice might successfully relate to one another is a persisting one, and especially so in education. The article takes a fresh look at this issue by using the terminology of collaboration scripts to reflect upon various forms of this relationship. Under this perspective, several approaches towards bridging the research/ practice gap are being described with regard to the type and closeness of interaction between the two realms. As different focuses and blind spots become discernible, the issue is raised concerning which 'script' might be appropriate depending upon the starting conditions of research interacting with practice

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

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    Talking about risk: A rhetorical analysis of press interviews dealing with mad cow disease

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    Die Diskussion um den Umgang mit der Rinderseuche BSE und ihren Implikationen fĂŒr die menschliche Gesundheit ist ein exemplarischer Fall eines Sachverhalts, der ebenso undurchsichtig wie doppelköpfig ist. Es handelt sich um eine Risikosituation von betrĂ€chtlicher Tragweite, in der die Gefahr selbst, aber auch alles, was man gegen sie unternimmt, schwerwiegende Auswirkungen haben kann. Grundlage der Arbeit ist ein Korpus von 95 Interviews zum Thema Rinderwahnsinn aus fĂŒhrenden deutschen Tages- und Wochenzeitungen der JahrgĂ€nge 1995-2004. Mit Fragen zum Thema BSE konfrontiert werden darin Personen, die in ihrer Eigenschaft als Wissenschaftler, Politiker, aber auch als Landwirte oder Gastronomen ganz unterschiedliche Perspektiven auf das Problem reprĂ€sentieren. Die Studie verfolgt zwei explorative Zielsetzungen: Die Charakterisierung des Risikodiskurses und die Analyse des rhetorischen Agierens der Diskursteilnehmer innerhalb dieses Rahmens. Der analytische Zugang zu den Stellungnahmen der Interviewpartner erfolgt durch eine systematische Suche nach Inhalten, die innerhalb der Diskussion Gemeingut sind und somit die elementaren Bausteine des Nachdenkens ĂŒber BSE bilden. Die antike Rhetorik bietet mit der Topik ein Konzept fĂŒr intersubjektiv verbreitete Inhalte. Eine inhaltsanalytische Methodik, die qualitative und quantitative Elemente kombiniert, dient zur Identifizierung dieses Diskursfundaments und legt die Grundlage fĂŒr eine Untersuchung der argumentativen Vereinnahmung dieses Reservoirs an gemeinsamen Überzeugungen als ‚gute GrĂŒnde’ fĂŒr individuelle Stellungnahmen. Ein ebenso grundlegender wie konsensueller Bezugspunkt der Stellungnahmen ist das Wenige, was ĂŒber die Eigenarten der Krankheit bekannt ist. Gerade der Diskurs um den Rinderwahnsinn ist jedoch nicht nur eine Geschichte der argumentativen Verwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse. Viel bemerkenswerter ist in Anbetracht der unzureichenden Erforschung von BSE die Rolle, die Äußerungen des Nicht-Wissens und der Ungewissheit in dieser Diskussion einnehmen. Dieser Zweifel – ob er sich nun auf die Natur des Erregers bezieht oder auf andere Annahmen im Zusammenhang mit der Krankheit – ist eine grundlegende Determinante des Diskurses, die jegliche Versuche, Lösungen durch mechanische Subsumtion aus den WissensprĂ€missen abzuleiten, von vornherein zum Scheitern verurteilt. Im Umgang mit dieser Ungewissheit werden zwei grundsĂ€tzliche Alternativen sichtbar: Die Antizipation des besten („in dubio contra dubium“) oder des schlimmsten („in dubio pro dubio“) anzunehmenden Ausgangs. Die Binnendiskussion um die SensitivitĂ€t von BSE-Tests verweist darauf, dass eine dritte diskutierte Option, nĂ€mlich die Ungewissheit durch Forschung und Kontrolle gĂ€nzlich zu eliminieren, illusorisch ist. Auch wird deutlich, dass es neben der deliberativen Dimension des Diskurses, in der es um die Frage geht, was angesichts der Bedrohung durch BSE zu tun sei, eine forensische gibt, in der Zuweisungen von Schuld und Verantwortung dominieren. Dennoch kann die Diskussion um den Rinderwahnsinn als Beispiel dafĂŒr dienen, wie Entscheidungsfindung mit den rhetorischen Mitteln des Aushandelns verschiedener VorschlĂ€ge auf der Basis eines Reservoirs gemeinsamer Überzeugungen auch unter der PrĂ€misse unvollkommenen Wissens möglich ist.Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease in cattle whose transmissibility to humans led to public anxiety in the UK, but also in continental Europe in the 1990ies and the beginning of the following decade, engendering dramatic economic as well as political consequences. Public concern was heightened by the fact that the disease itself was only poorly understood scientifically, which made it difficult to decide which measures to take against the threat. The study investigates 95 press interviews given by politicians, scientists and stakeholders economically affected by the BSE crisis. The texts date from the years 1995 to 2004 and reveal multiple ways of addressing the problem from various angles. The interviewees employ a number of rhetorical strategies to make their point, the most prominent being that of either downplaying or amplifying uncertainty. At the same time, nearly all statements refer to a common knowledge base which is highly consensual. The study uses the rhetorical term of topos to address these generally accepted pieces of knowledge which are in turn adopted in various ways as ‘good reasons’ for individual claims. The texts reveal two basic ways of dealing with uncertainty: To anticipate a best case (“in dubio contra dubium”) or worst case (“in dubio pro dubio”) scenario. To investigate and control the problem in order to reach complete certainty (such as “safe beef”) is discussed as a third option, but the debate on the sensitivity of BSE testing points out to the practical limitations of this approach. It also has to be acknowledged that due to the political dimension of the debate, talking about the BSE risk does not only mean advising the public about food safety or promoting certain problem solving approaches. It is also a debate in which responsibility and blame are central issues. Thus, from a rhetorical point of view, the statements given in the interviews do not only belong to the domain of the deliberative genre, but do also have a forensic dimension. Still, one of the most intriguing aspects of the debate on BSE is how rhetorical reasoning obviously does enable all stakeholders to promote concrete decisions in a situation of limited time and factual uncertainty

    Prenatally Induced Changes in Muscle Structure and Metabolic Function Facilitate Exercise-Induced Obesity Prevention

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    Effective regulation of energy metabolism is vital for the maintenance of optimal health, and an inability to make these dynamic adjustments is a recognized cause of obesity and metabolic disorders. Epidemiological and experimental studies have highlighted the role of prenatal factors in the disease process, and it is now generally accepted that maternal nutrition during pregnancy significantly influences intrauterine development, shaping postnatal health. Consequences of impaired nutrition during fetal development include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent obesity development in adult life. We have previously shown that prenatal undernutrition has a lasting effect on behavior, with IUGR offspring expressing a higher preference for voluntary exercise, and moderate daily exercise preventing obesity development. The present study investigated skeletal muscle structure in IUGR offspring and how moderate daily exercise drives changes in metabolic pathways that promote obesity prevention. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished, generating control or IUGR offspring respectively. Although red muscle structure indicated higher oxidative capacity in IUGR offspring, obesity prevention was not due to increased fatty acid oxidation, indicated by decreased peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1 expression. In contrast, increased protein kinase Cζ expression and glycogen content in white muscle of exercised IUGR offspring suggests an enhanced capacity for anaerobic utilization of glucose. Furthermore, exercise-induced lactate accumulation was effectively prevented by stimulation of a lactate shuttle, driven by the increases in monocarboxylate transporters-4 and -1 in white muscle. This enhanced metabolic flexibility in IUGR offspring may facilitate muscle contractile performance and therefore support moderate daily exercise for effective obesity prevention.Korinna Huber, Jennifer L. Miles, Amy M. Norman, Nichola M. Thompson, Michael Davison and Bernhard H. Breie

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

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    International audienceHigh energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce a large number of particles along the beam collision axis, outside of the acceptance of existing LHC experiments. The proposed Forward Physics Facility (FPF), to be located several hundred meters from the ATLAS interaction point and shielded by concrete and rock, will host a suite of experiments to probe Standard Model (SM) processes and search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In this report, we review the status of the civil engineering plans and the experiments to explore the diverse physics signals that can be uniquely probed in the forward region. FPF experiments will be sensitive to a broad range of BSM physics through searches for new particle scattering or decay signatures and deviations from SM expectations in high statistics analyses with TeV neutrinos in this low-background environment. High statistics neutrino detection will also provide valuable data for fundamental topics in perturbative and non-perturbative QCD and in weak interactions. Experiments at the FPF will enable synergies between forward particle production at the LHC and astroparticle physics to be exploited. We report here on these physics topics, on infrastructure, detector, and simulation studies, and on future directions to realize the FPF's physics potential

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

    No full text
    High energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce a large number of particles along the beam collision axis, outside of the acceptance of existing LHC experiments. The proposed Forward Physics Facility (FPF), to be located several hundred meters from the ATLAS interaction point and shielded by concrete and rock, will host a suite of experiments to probe Standard Model (SM) processes and search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In this report, we review the status of the civil engineering plans and the experiments to explore the diverse physics signals that can be uniquely probed in the forward region. FPF experiments will be sensitive to a broad range of BSM physics through searches for new particle scattering or decay signatures and deviations from SM expectations in high statistics analyses with TeV neutrinos in this low-background environment. High statistics neutrino detection will also provide valuable data for fundamental topics in perturbative and non-perturbative QCD and in weak interactions. Experiments at the FPF will enable synergies between forward particle production at the LHC and astroparticle physics to be exploited. We report here on these physics topics, on infrastructure, detector, and simulation studies, and on future directions to realize the FPF's physics potential

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

    No full text
    International audienceHigh energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce a large number of particles along the beam collision axis, outside of the acceptance of existing LHC experiments. The proposed Forward Physics Facility (FPF), to be located several hundred meters from the ATLAS interaction point and shielded by concrete and rock, will host a suite of experiments to probe Standard Model (SM) processes and search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In this report, we review the status of the civil engineering plans and the experiments to explore the diverse physics signals that can be uniquely probed in the forward region. FPF experiments will be sensitive to a broad range of BSM physics through searches for new particle scattering or decay signatures and deviations from SM expectations in high statistics analyses with TeV neutrinos in this low-background environment. High statistics neutrino detection will also provide valuable data for fundamental topics in perturbative and non-perturbative QCD and in weak interactions. Experiments at the FPF will enable synergies between forward particle production at the LHC and astroparticle physics to be exploited. We report here on these physics topics, on infrastructure, detector, and simulation studies, and on future directions to realize the FPF's physics potential

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

    No full text
    High energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce a large number of particles along the beam collision axis, outside of the acceptance of existing LHC experiments. The proposed Forward Physics Facility (FPF), to be located several hundred meters from the ATLAS interaction point and shielded by concrete and rock, will host a suite of experiments to probe standard model (SM) processes and search for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In this report, we review the status of the civil engineering plans and the experiments to explore the diverse physics signals that can be uniquely probed in the forward region. FPF experiments will be sensitive to a broad range of BSM physics through searches for new particle scattering or decay signatures and deviations from SM expectations in high statistics analyses with TeV neutrinos in this low-background environment. High statistics neutrino detection will also provide valuable data for fundamental topics in perturbative and non-perturbative QCD and in weak interactions. Experiments at the FPF will enable synergies between forward particle production at the LHC and astroparticle physics to be exploited. We report here on these physics topics, on infrastructure, detector, and simulation studies, and on future directions to realize the FPF's physics potential

    The Forward Physics Facility at the High-Luminosity LHC

    Get PDF
    International audienceHigh energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce a large number of particles along the beam collision axis, outside of the acceptance of existing LHC experiments. The proposed Forward Physics Facility (FPF), to be located several hundred meters from the ATLAS interaction point and shielded by concrete and rock, will host a suite of experiments to probe Standard Model (SM) processes and search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In this report, we review the status of the civil engineering plans and the experiments to explore the diverse physics signals that can be uniquely probed in the forward region. FPF experiments will be sensitive to a broad range of BSM physics through searches for new particle scattering or decay signatures and deviations from SM expectations in high statistics analyses with TeV neutrinos in this low-background environment. High statistics neutrino detection will also provide valuable data for fundamental topics in perturbative and non-perturbative QCD and in weak interactions. Experiments at the FPF will enable synergies between forward particle production at the LHC and astroparticle physics to be exploited. We report here on these physics topics, on infrastructure, detector, and simulation studies, and on future directions to realize the FPF's physics potential

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