188 research outputs found

    Organic red meat development in Wales

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    Much of the recent expansion of organic farming in Wales in associated with red meat production. Of the 56,621 hectares that will be fully organic by 2004, probably 80% is permanent grassland (assumption from Soil Association OFFR, 2002), the majority of which will be associated with beef and lamb production. The following factors suggest that the development of a strategy (which may encompass several sub strategies) for the red meat sector in Wales, to include production, processing, retailing, and consumer awareness, is vital to minimise disruption to the developing sector: 路 Most of the organic red meat production in Wales is new. 路 Other regions of the UK are seeing similar increases organic red meat production. 路 The retail market for organic red meat in the UK as a whole is relatively new and untested. 路 The organic red meat retail market in Wales is small. 路 Import channels for organic red meat have been established. Due to land area still in conversion in 2003 (much of which is in second year conversion) and the long production cycles for red meat in general, but particularly beef, 2004, 2005 and 2006 are still likely to result in increased organic red meat coming onto the market. One significant unknown factor is the risk that some producers may choose to revert to non-organic farming as their Organic Farming Scheme agreements come to an end in 2004 and 2005. This decision is likely to depend on the success of the organic system on their farm at that time and whether viable options exist outside the organic sector. Factors affecting the viability of the organic farming system will focus on profitability from production (access to good prices and costs of production), and income from the first (direct support payments) and second (agri-environment) pillars of the CAP. This report concentrates on the key issues important in maintaining organic red meat production system profitability and stability, but also recognises the influence of direct support and agri-environment payments

    Improving market intelligence for the organic red meat sector in Wales

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    To improve market intelligence and data collection 1. There should be improved co-operation and co-ordination in the marketing of organic stock. There should be encouragement for farmers to co-operate in a structured way through regional producer marketing groups and co-ops. 2. It is suggested that all producer groups link in with the existing national livestock federation. This allows groups to work together in order to limit the numbers dealing with supermarket buyers, streamlining supply chains, leading to better quality and consistency of supply. 3. Producer groups already hold a lot of the information required. Information deemed by the groups to be commercially sensitive, as unrestricted access could undermine their work, can only be shared within the federation of groups. Once this data is deemed to be historic data then it can be released. 4. As most of the commercially sensitive material is held within the livestock federation it is crucial that there must be good communication between the federation and OCW for strategic direction and appropriate support. This could be achieved by working through the Organic Strategy Group and its sub groups. Other recommendations 5. Support must be provided to enable existing smaller scale abattoirs and meat cutters to prosper. Regulatory, planning, and financial factors need to be reviewed to ensure this sector not only prospers, but also is encouraged to expand. 6. There needs to be improved liaison with certification bodies to improve the information that can be provided. An improved annual questionnaire for licensed producers covering numbers of animals on farm and numbers to be sold as stores or finished would be a valuable source of information. Certification bodies need to be financially rewarded for doing this work. 7. The Soil Association鈥檚 Organic Food and Farming Report uses data that runs from April to April. This should be changed to run as a calendar year to allow ease of comparison with other reports. 8. The NOLD and NOFAG databases should be further developed as a national service with regional options for trading and information provision. The recommendations above will be further developed in the Organic Red Meat Development Project

    Understanding the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: development of a new conceptual framework

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    Background Dementia is a major global health and social care challenge, and family carers are a vital determinant of positive outcomes for people with dementia. This study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the Quality of Life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia. Methods We studied family carers of people with dementia and staff working in dementia services iteratively using in鈥恉epth individual qualitative interviews and focus groups discussions. Analysis used constant comparison techniques underpinned by a collaborative approach with a study鈥恠pecific advisory group of family carers. Results We completed 41 individual interviews with 32 family carers and nine staff and two focus groups with six family carers and five staff. From the analysis, we identified 12 themes that influenced carer QOL. These were organised into three categories focussing on person with dementia, carer, and external environment. Conclusions For carers of people with dementia, the QOL construct was found to include condition鈥恠pecific domains which are not routinely considered in generic assessment of QOL. This has implications for researchers, policy makers, and service providers in addressing and measuring QOL in family carers of people with dementia

    The riparian reactive interface: a climate-sensitive gatekeeper of global nutrient cycles

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    Riparian zones are critical interfaces to freshwater systems, acting as gateways for the conveyance and modification of macronutrient fluxes from land to rivers and oceans. In this paper, we propose that certain riparian conditions and processes (conceptually 'Riparian Reactive Interfaces') may be susceptible to environmental change with consequences of accelerating local nutrient cycling cascading to global impacts on the cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). However, we argue that this concept is insufficiently understood and that research has not yet established robust baseline data to predict and measure change at the key riparian ecosystem interface. We suggest one contributing factor as lack of interdisciplinary study of abiotic and biotic processes linking C, N, and P dynamics and another being emphasis on riparian ecology and restoration that limits frameworks for handling and scaling topography-soil-water-climate physical and biogeochemical observations from plot to large catchment scales. Scientific effort is required now to evaluate riparian current and future controls on global nutrient cycles through multi-nutrient (and controlling element) studies, grounded in landscape frameworks for dynamic riparian behaviour variation, facilitating scaling to catchment predictions

    Capacity building and mentorship among pan-Canadian early career researchers in community-based primary health care

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    Aim: To describe activities and outcomes of a cross-team capacity building strategy that took place over a five-year funding period within the broader context of 12 community-based primary health care (CBPHC) teams. Background: In 2013, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded 12 CBPHC Teams (12-Teams) to conduct innovative cross-jurisdictional research to improve the delivery of high-quality CBPHC to Canadians. This signature initiative also aimed to enhance CBPHC research capacity among an interdisciplinary group of trainees, facilitated by a collaboration between a capacity building committee led by senior researchers and a trainee-led working group. Methods: After the committee and working group were established, capacity building activities were organized based on needs and interests identified by trainees of the CBPHC Teams. This paper presents a summary of the activities accomplished, as well as the outcomes reported through an online semistructured survey completed by the trainees toward the end of the five-year funding period. This survey was designed to capture the capacity building and mentorship activities that trainees either had experienced or would like to experience in the future. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted based on survey responses, and these findings were compared with the existing core competencies in the literature. Findings: Since 2013, nine webinars and three online workshops were hosted by trainees and senior researchers, respectively. Many of the CBPHC Teams provided exposure for trainees to innovative methods, CBPHC content, and showcased trainee research. A total of 27 trainees from 10 of the 12-Teams responded to the survey (41.5%). Trainees identified key areas of benefit from their involvement in this initiative: skills training, networking opportunities, and academic productivity. Trainees identified gaps in research and professional skill development, indicating areas for further improvement in capacity building programs, particularly for trainees to play a more active role in their education and preparation

    Tetra颅kis(渭-3-aza颅niumylbenzoato)-魏3 O:O,O鈥;魏3 O,O鈥:O;魏4 O:O鈥-bis颅[triaqua颅chloridolanthanum(III)] tetra颅chloride dihydrate

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    The tiltle complex, [La2(C7H7NO2)4Cl2(H2O)6]Cl4路2H2O, is a centrosymmetric dimer formed by edge-sharing LaO5(H2O)3Cl polyhedra linked together by a carboxyl颅ate ligand. The two LaIII metal ions are linked by two bidentate bridging carboxyl颅ate groups with a 魏2 O:O鈥 coordination mode and two bidentate chelating bridging carboxyl颅ate groups with a 魏3 O:O,O鈥 coordination mode. The coordination sphere of lanthanum, completed by a terminal chloride and three water mol颅ecules, adopts a distorted tricapped trigonal鈥損rismatic arrangement. N鈥擧鈰疌l, N鈥擧鈰疧 and O鈥擧water鈰疌l hydrogen bonds, and slipped 蟺鈥撓 inter颅actions between parallel benzene rings [centroid鈥揷entroid distance of 3.647鈥(3)鈥吤匽 are observed in the structure. These combine to stabilize a three-dimensional network

    Clinical progression and outcome of dysphagia following thermal burn injury: A prospective cohort study

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    The objectives of this study were 1) to establish clinical profiles of dysphagic and nondysphagic individuals following thermal burn injury and 2) to provide a clinical profile of the progression and outcome of dysphagia resolution by hospital discharge for a dysphagic cohort. A total of 438 consecutively admitted patients with thermal burns were included. All patients underwent a clinical swallowing examination. Medical parameters regarding burn presentation and its treatment and speech-language pathology specific variables from admission to discharge were collected for each participant. Dysphagia was identified in 49 patients via clinical assessment, and their course of recovery was followed up until the point of dysphagia resolution or discharge. No significant difference was observed between the dysphagic and nondysphagic groups in age, gender, and injury etiology. However, the dysphagic cohort was significantly different from the nondysphagic group in all variables pertaining to injury presentation and medical management. Individuals with dysphagia took significantly longer to start, and maintain, oral intake and required nonoral supplementation for three and a half times longer than those who were nondysphagic. Length of speech-language pathology intervention averaged 1 month for the dysphagics and increased with dysphagia severity. Return to normal fluid consistencies occurred in >75% of dysphagic individuals by week 7 after injury, although resumption of normal diet textures was more protracted, with 75% resuming normal oral intake by week 9. Dysphagia had resolved in 50% of the cohort by week 6, and by hospital discharge, 85% of the dysphagic individuals had resumed normal oral intake of thin fluids and a general diet. This is the first large prospective cohort study to establish clinical profiles of dysphagic and nondysphagic cohorts and document the nature of dysphagia and patterns of recovery within the thermal burn population. These current data will assist the allocation and planning of speech-language pathology services and provide baseline data on the course of dysphagia resolution in the adult thermal burn population
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