414 research outputs found

    The surface properties of carbon fibers and their adhesion to organic polymers

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    The state of knowledge of the surface properties of carbon fibers is reviewed, with emphasis on fiber/matrix adhesion in carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Subjects treated include carbon fiber structure and chemistry, techniques for the study of the fiber surface, polymer/fiber bond strength and its measurement, variations in polymer properties in the interphase, and the influence of fiber matrix adhesion on composite mechanical properties. Critical issues are summarized and search recommendations are made

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    Surface and interfacial properties of carbon fibers

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    Differences in the adhesion of three carbon fibers (Hercules AS1 and AS4, and Hysol-Grafil XAS) to polycarbonate (PC) have been shown to correlate with the absorptivity of PC on the three fiber types. The absorptivity (energy of absorption) was determined using retention time liquid chromatography and the adhesion was measured using the single embedded filament tensile test. A correlation was also found between adhesion strength and the O/N surface element ratio using XPS analysis. The chemical details for these correlations have not yet been determined. A study of filament fracture statistics has been initiated using single and multiple embedded filament tensile tests. Filament fracture has been measured as a function of strain and for different interfiber distances. Preliminary results indicate that fiber fracture is a discontinuous function of increasing strain and may in fact occur at discrete strain intervals. Fiber-fiber interaction effects on fiber fracture have been found for interfiber distances of up to two to three fiber diameters

    Loss of solutions in shear banding fluids in shear banding fluids driven by second normal stress differences

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    Edge fracture occurs frequently in non-Newtonian fluids. A similar instability has often been reported at the free surface of fluids undergoing shear banding, and leads to expulsion of the sample. In this paper the distortion of the free surface of such a shear banding fluid is calculated by balancing the surface tension against the second normal stresses induced in the two shear bands, and simultaneously requiring a continuous and smooth meniscus. We show that wormlike micelles typically retain meniscus integrity when shear banding, but in some cases can lose integrity for a range of average applied shear rates during which one expects shear banding. This meniscus fracture would lead to ejection of the sample as the shear banding region is swept through. We further show that entangled polymer solutions are expected to display a propensity for fracture, because of their much larger second normal stresses. These calculations are consistent with available data in the literature. We also estimate the meniscus distortion of a three band configuration, as has been observed in some wormlike micellar solutions in a cone and plate geometry.Comment: 23 pages, to be published in Journal of Rheolog

    Korean lespedeza in Missouri

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    Toughening mechanisms in elastomer-modified epoxies

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    The toughening mechanisms of elastomer-modified epoxies are examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy, DGEBA epoxies toughened by various levels of several types of carboxyl terminated copolymers of butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) liquid rubber are studied. The materials are deformed in uniaxial tension and in three-point bending with an edge notch. Scanning electron microscopy of fracture surfaces indicate cavitation of the rubber particles to be a major deformation mechanism. Particle-particle interaction is also found. Optical microscopy of thin sections perpendicular to the fracture surface shows that the cavitated particles generate shear bands. The toughening effect is hypothesized to be due to cavitation, which relieves the triaxial tension at the crack tip, and shear band formation, which creates a large plastic zone.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/44686/1/10853_2005_Article_BF01114294.pd

    Influence of particle size and particle size distribution on toughening mechanisms in rubber-modified epoxies

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    The principal toughening mechanism of a substantially toughened, rubber-modified epoxy has again been shown to involve internal cavitation of the rubber particles and the subsequent formation of shear bands. Additional evidence supporting this sequence of events which provides a significant amount of toughness enhancement, is presented. However, in addition to this well-known mechanism, more subtle toughening mechanisms have been found in this work. Evidence for such mechanisms as crack deflection and particle bridging is shown under certain circumstances in rubber-modified epoxies. The occurrence of these toughening mechanisms appears to have a particle size dependence. Relatively large particles provide only a modest increase in fracture toughness by a particle bridging/crack deflection mechanism. In contrast, smaller particles provide a significant increase in toughness by cavitation-induced shear banding. A critical, minimum diameter for particles which act as bridging particles exists and this critical diameter appears to scale with the properties of the neat epoxy. Bimodal mixtures of epoxies containing small and large particles are also examined and no synergistic effects are observed.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/44701/1/10853_2005_Article_BF01184979.pd
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