130 research outputs found

    High temperature fatigue behavior of a SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite

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    A series of tension-tension strain- and load-controlled tests were conducted on unidirectional SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at percent) composites at 425 and 815 C. Several regimes of damage were identified using Talrega's concept of fatigue life diagrams. Issues of test technique, test control mode, and definition of failure were also addressed

    Viscoplastic constitutive relationships with dependence on thermomechanical history

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    Experimental evidence of thermomechanical history dependence in the cyclic hardening behavior of some common high-temperature structural alloys is presented with special emphasis on dynamic metallurgical changes. The inadequacy of formulating nonisothermal constitutive equations solely on the basis of isothermal testing is discussed. A representation of thermoviscoplasticity is proposed that qualitatively accounts for the observed hereditary behavior. This is achieved by formulating the scalar evolutionary equation in an established viscoplasticity theory to reflect thermomechanical path dependence. To assess the importance of accounting for thermomechanical history dependence in practical structural analyses, two qualitative models are specified: (1) formulated as if based entirely on isothermal information; (2) to reflect thermomechanical path dependence using the proposed thermoviscoplastic representation. Predictions of the two models are compared and the impact the calculated differences in deformation behavior may have on subsequent lifetime predictions is discussed

    Investigation of a SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite

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    A summary of ongoing research on the characterization of a continuous fiber reinforced SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at percent) composite is presented. The powder metallurgy fabrication technique is described as are the nondestructive evaluation results of the as-fabricated composite plates. Tensile properties of the SiC fiber, the matrix material, and the 0-deg SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite (fibers oriented unidirectionally, parallel to the loading axis) from room temperature to 1100 C are presented and discussed with regard to the resultant fractography. The as-fabricated fiber-matrix interface has been examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy and the compounds present in the reaction zone have been identified. Fiber-matrix interaction and stability of the matrix near the fiber is characterized at 815, 985, and 1200 C from 1 to 500 hr. Measurements of the fiber-matrix reaction, the loss of C-rich coating from the surface of the SiC fiber, and the growth of the Beta depleted zone in the matrix adjacent to the fiber are presented. These data and the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the fiber and the matrix are discussed in terms of their likely effects on mechanical properties

    Thermomechanical cyclic hardening behavior of Hastelloy-X

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    Experimental evidence of thermomechanical history dependence on the cyclic hardening behavior of a representative combustor liner material Hastelloy-X is presented, along with a discussion about the relevant concept of thermomechanical path dependence. Based on the experimental results, a discussion is given on the inadequacy of formulating nonisothermal constitutive equations solely on the basis of isothermal testing. Finally, the essence of a mathematical representation of thermoviscoplasticity is presented that qualitatively accounts for the observed hereditary behavior. This is achieved by formulating the scaler evolutionary equation in an established viscoplastic theory to reflect thermomechanical path dependence. Although the necessary nonisothermal tests for further quantifying the thermoviscoplastic model have been identified, such data are not yet available

    Preliminary study of creep thresholds and thermomechanical response in Haynes 188 at temperatures in the range 649 to 871 C

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    The following conclusions were drawn from this study of creep thresholds and thermomechanical response: (1) creep threshold can be determined using the latest electrohydraulic test equipment, providing that test durations are short and relatively large accumulations of creep strain are used in defining the threshold; (2) significant creep strains were measured under monotonic loading as stress levels as low as 4 ksi at temperatures predicted for solar receiver service; and (3) the material exhibited creep ratchetting during simulated service cycles, a result not predicted by analysis using current constitutive models for Haynes 188

    Unified Viscoplastic Behavior of Metal Matrix Composites

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    The need for unified constitutive models was recognized more than a decade ago in the results of phenomenological tests on monolithic metals that exhibited strong creep-plasticity interaction. Recently, metallic alloys have been combined to form high-temperature ductile/ductile composite materials, raising the natural question of whether these metallic composites exhibit the same phenomenological features as their monolithic constituents. This question is addressed in the context of a limited, yet definite (to illustrate creep/plasticity interaction) set of experimental data on the model metal matrix composite (MMC) system W/Kanthal. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a unified viscoplastic representation, extended for unidirectional composites and correlated to W/Kanthal, can accurately predict the observed longitudinal composite creep/plasticity interaction response and strain rate dependency. Finally, the predicted influence of fiber orientation on the creep response of W/Kanthal is illustrated

    Thermomechanical characterization of Hastelloy-X under uniaxial cyclic loading

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    In most high-temperature engineering applications, components are subjected to complex combinations of thermal and mechanical loading during service. A number of viscoplastic constitutive models were proposed which potentially can provide mathematical descriptions of material response under such conditions. Implementation of these models into large finite element codes such as MARC has already resulted in much improved inelastic analysis capability for hot-section aircraft engine components. However, a number of questions remain regarding the validity of methods adopted in characterizing these constitutive models for particular high-temperature materials. One area of concern is that the majority of experimental data available for this purpose are determined under isothermal conditions. This is in contrast to service conditions which, as noted above, almost always involve some form of thermal cycling. The obvious question arises as to whether a constitutive model characterized using an isothermal data base can adequately predict material response under thermomechanical conditions. An experimental program was initiated within the HOST program to address this particular concern. The results of the most recent isothermal and thermomechanical experiments are described

    Narrow-line Laser Cooling by Adiabatic Transfer

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    We propose and demonstrate a novel laser cooling mechanism applicable to particles with narrow-linewidth optical transitions. By sweeping the frequency of counter-propagating laser beams in a sawtooth manner, we cause adiabatic transfer back and forth between the ground state and a long-lived optically excited state. The time-ordering of these adiabatic transfers is determined by Doppler shifts, which ensures that the associated photon recoils are in the opposite direction to the particle's motion. This ultimately leads to a robust cooling mechanism capable of exerting large forces via a weak transition and with reduced reliance on spontaneous emission. We present a simple intuitive model for the resulting frictional force, and directly demonstrate its efficacy for increasing the total phase-space density of an atomic ensemble. We rely on both simulation and experimental studies using the 7.5~kHz linewidth 1^1S0_0 to 3^3P1_1 transition in 88^{88}Sr. The reduced reliance on spontaneous emission may allow this adiabatic sweep method to be a useful tool for cooling particles that lack closed cycling transitions, such as molecules.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field

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    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the ‘international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques’ at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques

    Environmental Studies on Titanium Aluminide Alloys

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    Titanium aluminides are attractive alternatives to superalloys in moderate temperature applications (600 to 850 C) by virtue of their high strength-to-density ratio (high specific strength). These alloys are also more ductile than competing intermetallic systems. However, most Ti-based alloys tend to degrade through interstitial embrittlement and rapid oxidation during exposure to elevated temperatures. Therefore, their environmental behavior must be thoroughly investigated before they can be developed further. The goals of titanium aluminide environmental studies at the NASA Lewis Research Center are twofold: characterize the degradation mechanisms for advanced structural alloys and determine what means are available to minimize degradation. The studies to date have covered the alpha 2 (Ti3Al), orthorhombic (Ti2AlNb), and gamma (TiAl) classes of alloys
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